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3D & Stereovision
§ART§ | §ART & SCIENCE (Vision)§ | Associations | §ASTRONOMY§
Color | §Color Blindness§ | Diffraction
Electronic Eyewear | §ENGINEERING§ | Eye | §EYES§
Fiber Optics | FIND | General
History | §HISTORY of Science§ | Holograms
Lenses | Lens Grinding | Light | §Lighting Design§
§MEDICINE§ | §Microscopy§ | Mirror Making | Mirrors
Optical Engineering | Optical Fiber | Optical Illusions | Optics
§Paints & Pigments§ | Perception | §PHOTOGRAPHY§ | §PHYSICS§ | §PSYCHOLOGY§
§SCIENCE-General§ | Sight | Software
Terms | Tutorials
(Click above to jump to Listings on this page or to an § ALTERNATE ELA DIRECTORY§)





















3d-club and more Vrml, (stereo-)Pano´s, stereoscopic pics, visual reality, background info, shop
3D IMAGES, BOOKS, CLIP-ART & LINKS by Dan Shelley, Anaglyphs, Stereo Pairs, JPS LCD images
3D riDDle Home Page navigate pages by solving 3D riddles
3d Stereogram Tutorial: Professional Stereoscopic Three Dimensional Services
Andrew's Autostereogram Page: W.A. Steer,includes stereogram software
Andy's Index includes stereogram software
The Art Of P.i.x.l.F.u.x.a Stereoscopic Artwork & Photography, Metaphysical Realism
Changkai's Stereogram Page
Designing Your Own Cyberview 3D Documents
Electric Lunar LarryLand 3-D gallery, graphics, images
Geometric Analysis, Visualization, and Conceptualization of 3D Image Data
Noel Archambault's Imax 3D Homepage 1961-1998 In Memoriam
Photographic Society of America Stereo Division
Ray Hannisian's Page: Ray3D - Stereoscopic Imaging (some nudism)
Reel 3-D Enterprises Home Page COMMERCIAL Sales
Single Image Random Dot Stereograms (SIRDS) Pages Gareth Richards, Peter Chang
Gareth and Peter's SIRDS pages UCSD Color and Vision Research Labs
PC Stereogram Generating Programs (LIST) Peter Jennings
Sirds FAQ Stuart Inglis and Todd Hale
Stereoscopy Information and Resources-index.html
Stereogram Page Download SIRD Software, Images
Stereogram pages W.A Steer software, consultant
Stereo Photography How-to, galleries, project, polarizing glasses
Stereoscopic Imaging - RAY 3D Ray Hannisian (some nudism)
Stereoscopy: Where Did It Come From? art, flat canvas represention history & breakthrough
StereoType Viewing Systems Designers, Directory, Services, Training
Steve Berezin's StereoLinks Page Realist format photography
Tony Bignell's Stereo 3-D Images parallel & cross-eyed POV-Ray images
Vern's SIRDS Gallery
The View-Master Homepage books, collectors, photos, Products, Q&A
Vern's SIRDS Gallery Vern Hart
Victorian 3D Society, Inc. Australian stereo photographers club, contacts, meeting venues, gallery 3D glasses, health, illusions, magic eye, vr, tutorial

AAO Page American Academy of Optometry
Commision Illumination Engineering (CIE, Ikeda Laboratory, Dept Elect and Electronics Eng, Chiba U)
Optical Society of America (OSA) The International Society for Optical Engineering

including.. Color Wheels
also see.. §ART-Paints & Pigments§, Light, §PHYSICS§, §WEB AUTHORING-Color§

dmoz Open Directory | Google | Wikipedia | Yahoo

216 Color Chart, 16 Mil Color Check Text & Background Conversion
256 color square click on a color & its hex number is returned.

Artists Paint and Pixel by Bil Longaphie, About, SiteMap
Theory basic colour theory

Art of Lighting Larry Hillier
Chromatic Space and World artist Johan Meskens investigates ChromaticSpace, explanation
Color Christy Kolmetz, U West Florida
ColorCom alternative to "Color Matters" (below)
Color Constancy UC Irvine Vision Group
The Coloring Info Pages Color Professionals Resources & Links by J.L. Morton

Color Model Museum and colour theory history:
Color Perception: Work Abstracts D'Zmura's Lab UC Irvine Vision Group
Color Pro

ColorPro Color CourseA Source!

Color Research & Application:   Wiley Interscience
Color Resources: WriteDesign, Links

Color ScienceA Source!

Colour Science & Technology Links, Peter Rhodes, Colour & Imaging Institute, Univ. Derby, UK.
Colour Society of Australia aims, events, journal, Links, reports
Color Spaces Tutorial CICA Center for Innovative Computer Applications
Color Systems and Images: Hans Irtel
Colour Technology Forum:   Ikeda Laboratory, Dept Elect and Electronics Eng, Chiba U
Color Theory:
Color Theory-Autochrome (photography)
Color Theory Basics (javascript downloadable code):

The Colour GroupUse It! Chromaticity java diagrams xy, uv, coord converison: Great Britain

Colour & Imaging Institute University of Derby, UK

Cours de Vision Artificielle (French) from Telesun, Glossaire ( Translate )
    º Modeles de représentation de la couleur
    º Synthese additive et soustractive

CS450/550: Introduction to Computer Graphics CIE Diagram, Clor Mixing (.gz format)
CVRL Color & Vision database (old version) UCSD Color and Vision Research Labs

CVRL Color & Vision databaseUse It! download std color/vision research data sets, coord, diag, tables... industrial color matching & management software

efg ( mirror ) image processing, color science, computer graphics, math, fractals, chaos, science, engineering
Color Mix ReportUse It! Download additive & subtractive primary colors executable
Color Reference Library

Feel the Color!

Fireworks, The Physics of Coloured..A Source! by Petri Pihko

Image and Color Analysis
Inter-Society Color Council aims, demystifying color, events, journal, Links, reports

Introduction to the Bases of Colour Vision Links
from U Calgary, Psychology
Acquired Color Deficiencies
Light as Color

The Joy of Visual Perception: A Web Book by Peter K.Kaiser & Rod Potter ( Contents ) & Links
from York U
Color/Color VisionUse It!

Lance W. Hahn's Homepage Perception, Vision, Brain
Lisa Explains It All - Adding Color, Color Applet, Color Slider, Color Wheel
Luscher Colour (Personality) Test Lim Kean Yew's Page
Molecular Expressions, Light and Color: Primary Colors
Color Filters
Color Separation
• Primary Additive Colors, Subtractive Colors

Munsell Color Science Laboratory:

The Munsell Color-Order System
OSA - Optical Society of America

Penn State U, Visualization Group
Graphics Short Course I: Color Theory and 2D Image Representation, References ( Color in Computer Graphics

Phil Fraundorf's Mind Quilts, U Missouri - St. Louis Observatory
Studies in the Geometry of Color, ColorFAQ colour specification and image coding ( HTM, PDF, Text... )
Rich Franzen
Interactive Color Wheel, experiment with saturation, intensity, hue & luma from
Kodak Lossless True Color Image Suite
PNG image format, Gallery
PseudoGreys Squeezing 1786 Grey Levels out of 256 Possiblitie

ROOM 102: COLOR: WallyWeb Site
Single Image Random Dot Stereograms (SIRDS) Pages UCSD Color and Vision Research Labs
Software Hans Irtel's ftp
Software for visual psychophysics, V 2.6, Nov. 6, 1995, manufacturer of Rembrandt, Van Gogh, Amsterdam & Art Supplies
Learn to Paint
    º Color Origin, Mixing ( Talens primaries & secondaries), Properties, Theory

Thalia: Guide: Compose page-colors compose your own color backgrounds.
The Physics of Coloured Fireworks

WebExhibits.orgUse It!
Causes of Colors
Color Vision and Art visison science & the emergence of modern art
Pigments through the Ages

The White Garden A Kaleidoscope of Senses with Links

Color: Additive, Subtractive, Mixing
Charles Albert Keeley's Colour Conundrum
Color theory
Full Spectral Imaging
Multi-spectral image
Dr. Neil Branda: On-Command Control of Molecular & Nanomaterials Using External Stimuli

COLOR WHEELS, 4096 Color Wheel by Jemima Pereira, Links
Hexadecimal Color Wheel (javascript downloadable code):   Javascript Source
Interactive Color Wheel, experiment with saturation, intensity, hue & luma from Rich Franzen
Online Color Wheel & Tools 216 color (javascript):


also see.. Optics, §Waves§

LightAndMatter.comUse It! Books: Optics
Wave Optics
    º 5.1 Diffraction Physics
On Diffraction
Huygens' Principle
Spherical Waves in Higher Dimensions
Waves in Ascending and Descending Dimensions

Molecular Expression, Light and Color: Refraction of Light
Beam Steering by Wedge Prisms
The Critical Angle of Reflection
Observing Objects in Water
Refraction by an Equilateral Prism
Refraction of Monochromatic Light laser and photonics components, Diffraction Gratings for OEM and scientific applications
Diffraction Grating Handbook
    º Guidelines for Specifying Gratings
    º Holographic Gratings
    º The Physics of Diffraction Gratings
    º Ruled Gratings
    º Selection Of Dispersing Systems

Atmospheric diffraction
Diffraction grating
Fraunhofer diffraction
Fresnel, Augustin-Jean
    º Fresnel diffraction
    º Fresnel equations
    º Fresnel lens
    º Fresnel number
    º Fresnel zone

Wearable Wireless Displays Are In Sight

Google Glass(es)Use It! What it Does
Wearable Displays: Mobile Device Eyewear
Development Program (pdf)
Heads-Up Display Embedded In Glasses
Dr. Neil Branda: On-Command Control of Molecular & Nanomaterials Using External Stimuli

also see.. §EYES§

Exploratorium: Cow's Eye Dissection

also see.. Optics

Mineralogical Society of America
Natural fiber optic - ulexite “Image Projection by Fibrous Minerals” (ulexite: NaCaB5O9•8H2O)

    º Category:Fiber optics
    º Category:Optical fiber
Chatoyancy cat's eye effect
Dielectric mirror
    º History of glass
Optical coating
Optical fiber
Optical vortex
Perfect mirror
Quartz SiO2 made up of SiO4 silicon-oxygen tetrahedra
    º Fulgurite
    º Fused quartz high-purity amorphous (non-crystalline) silica glass
Selenite (mineral)#Play of color; a variety of Gypsum (CaSO4ˇ2H2O)
Snell's window
Structure of liquids and glasses
Total internal reflection
    º #Critical angle
Ulexite NaCaB5O6(OH)6•5(H2O)

    º DIY FIBER OPTIC mineral oil fire starter from liquid fibre optic lighting SPHERICAL
    º Homemade Optical Fiber Fibre Optic Lighting Cable DIY Do it yourself..

DIRECTORIES-Vision Open Directory | | ( 2 )

DIRECTORIES-Color Open Directory | |

Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO) About
JournalOfVision Search
    º Articles: Archive best websites for study & research: Physical Sciences
Optics and light

Lars' Vision LinksUse It! Lars Liden, Dept Cognitive & Neural Systems, Boston U

Ross Ihaka, U Auckland, Dept Statistics
Visualization Links
Vision Dictionary
Vision Portal for research in human & animal vision
Bibliographies, Journals
Databases, Tutorials, FAQs, & other Resources
Departments, Institutes, Labs, Organizations, Poeple, Projects, Research Groups
Guides & FAQs
Images & Movies
Jobs, Training
Ophthalmology, Optometry & related Clinical

Vision Science Pointers Lance Hahn
WWW Virtual Library: Visual Science and Engineering ( SPIE Web Photonics Gateway )
York UUse It!
The Joy of Visual Perception: A Web Book by Peter K.Kaiser & Rod Potter ( Contents ), Links
ViperLib visual perception resource library of images and presentation material, Search


Vision Research: UC Irvine (
WebMuseum: Albers, Josef color& art
Psychology UoY. Core: Vision: Keywords Psychology Dept Human Perf Group, Bidwell afterimage?


The Art of Renaissance ScienceSee It!

Important Dates in Vision Science Vision Research UC Irvine
A History of Photography, by Robert Leggat
Bob's Photo Page History of Photography


Science Hobbyist ( alt ) by William J. (Bill) Beaty
Handmade Hologram Chidren's Science Project

The Internet Webseum of Holography by Frank DeFreitas
Intro to Holography and HoloKids

    º Category:Holography
Gabor, Dennis (1900-1979) 1947 invention of holography
Electron holography
Wolfke, Mieczyslaw (1883-1947)

also see.. Optics
Calculator single layer thin film optical reflectivity coating How To Ground Your Own Glass

Glass Association of North America: Publications
How Mirrors Are Made (video)

Globalspec Industrial-Directory Search: Optical Components and Optic
lens grinding
mirror coating

Google Search
coating a mirror
lens grinding
making a mirror

HyperPhysics: Light & Vision
Image from Principal Planes online calculator using the Thin Lens Equation

Microscopy-UK: The Challenge of Grinding Lenses for Single Lens Microscopes

Molecular Expression, Light and Color
Basic Properties of Mirrors
    º Concave Spherical Mirrors, 3-D
    º Convex Spherical Mirrors, 3-D
Reflection of Light
    º Antireflection Surface Coatings
    º Common Reflecting Prisms
    º The Critical Angle of Reflection
    º Reflection of Light
    º Reflection and Refraction with Huygens Wavelets
    º Right-Angle Prisms
    º Specular and Diffuse Reflection
    º Transmission and Reflection by Beamsplitters
A Telescope Mirror Coating Primer
Ophthalmic Lens Design

Stellafane ATM Pages (Amateur Telescope Making)

Spinoza's Ethics, A Polished Lens, About
Spinoza's Foci

Aberration of light
    º Optical aberration
Beam splitter
Distortion (optics)
Fresnel, Augustin-Jean
History of optics
Lens (optics)
    º List of lens designs
    º Aspheric lens
    º Burning glass
    º Corrective lens
    º Fresnel lens
    º Intraocular lens
    º Magnifying glass
    º Normal lens
    º Optical lens design
    º Simple lens
    º Visby lenses
Lens (anatomy)
    º Atomic mirror
    º Bronze mirror
    º Curved mirror
    º Dielectric mirror
    º House of mirrors
    º Liquid mirror
    º Parabolic reflector
    º Retroreflector
    º Ridged mirror
    º Two-way mirror
Optical coating
Reflection (physics)
    º Diffuse reflection
    º Reflection coefficient
    º Specular reflection
    º Total internal reflection
Spherical aberration

Willmann-Bell, Inc. Books & Grinding Grit Supplies [phone: 1-800-825-7827 (STAR)]
Telescope Making and Optics books
Telescope Making Supplies mirror kits, blanks, abrasives, polishing compounds, rosin, pitch, wax & additional supplies

    º Fresnel Lens Solar Foundry Obsidian Farm 3800ºF 2100ºC Fresnel Optics
Making a mirror with the Mirror-O-Matic

also see.. §ART (Optics)§, Diffraction, Fiber Optics, §HISTORY of Optics§, Lens Grinding, §Lighting Design§,
§Microscopy§, Optical Engineering, §PHOTOGRAPHY (Optics)§, §Quantum PHYSICS§,
§Spectroscopy (PHYSICS)§, §Thermodynamics§, §Waves (PHYSICS)§

dmoz Open Directory | Google | Wikipedia | Yahoo

ALCOM Education Outreach #2, December, 1992 NSF - Advanced Liquid Crystalline Optical Materials

Amateur Telescope Optics how arer images formed, what factors determine quality
Annenberg CPB Math Science - Teacher's Lab: The Science of Light
Edmond Optics Supplier of Optical Components
Technical Library
    º Keys to Cost Effective Optical Design and Tolerancing

How light is made from the ordered motion of electrons in atoms and molecules: U Oregon
How Light Works Theresa McMurdo & Jason Mitchell It! Links to best websites for study & research: Physical Sciences
Optics and light

Java Applets on Electromagnetic Theory & Optics
Winston Chan's Homepage, crystals, electrical engineering, ion implantation, semiconductor

Kenyon College, Department of Physics: Instruments for Natural Philosophy - Optics

The Lighting Resource Books

Make a Pseudoscope at

Molecular Expression & Introduction to Optical Microscopy and Photomicrography, Florida State U
Concave Spherical Mirrors
Human Vision and Color Perception
Lenses and Geometrical Optics: Intro to LensesUse It!
Intro to Mirrors
Light and Color, Museum
Microscopy Basics
Polarized Light Digital Image Gallery Chemical Crystals
Radius and RefractiveUse It! Index Effects on Lens Action
Reflection of Light
Science, Optics and You: Interactive Java Tutorials ( Alphabetic Index, Find Teaching Materials ): For Educators
Optics Guide
Reflection of Light With Two Plane Mirrors Double Mirrors Placed at a Number of Angles

Optical Research Associates
Optics for Kids! by Bruce Irving
Introduction to Optical Design

Optical Society of America (OSA) - Library by the Optical Society of America (OSA) - Search for Educational Institutions

Optics For Kids the science & engineering behind it from Optics Research Associates
Resources for Teachers and Parents
Teachers and Parents
Tutorials What is Optics? by the Optical Society of America (OSA)
Ask an Expert
What is Optics?, About, Links, Search, SiteMap
• standard & custom fast steering mirrors; controllers & beam stabilizers Optics & Photonics Resources, References, Tutorials
• Links: Fundamentals
Patent Search 27 yrs U.S. Patent & Trademark Office (USPTO) patent descriptions, 17 yrs of images (in cooperation with IBM)
Technical Library ($) - Fiber
• Reference Library - Photonics Dictionary
Links - Associations ( US, other ), Universities & Research Centers ( US, Other )

PhysicsClassroom.comUse It! Topics
Light Waves and Color
Reflection and the Ray Model of Light
Refraction and Ray Model of Light

Physics (SPH4A) at Appleby College Waves, Sound, Optics and Light by Cliff Sampson ( pinhole cameras, supplies, photographs - Search, SiteMap
Publications: Laser Devices, Laser Diagnostics, Optical Systems Encyclopedia of Laser Physics and Technology
Focul Length - Jumpstart Science: Physical Science
Introduction to Lens
Introduction To Light and Color
Mirrors (ads) Ron Kurtis'
Doppler Effect Equations for Light
Optical Devices
• Simulated Optics ExperimentsUse It! Curved Mirror, Single Lens

Space Telescope Science Institute
Amazing Space
    º Telescopes from the Ground Up

Spacetime Splashes: Catching the Wave in Einstein's Equations
Wave Optics for the internet - interference:  "University of Webucation"

Physics Study Guide/Optics

    º Category:Microscopes
    º Category:Microscopists
    º Category:Microscopy
    º Category:Optical physicists
    º Category:Optics
    º Category:Telescopes
    º History of the camera
    º History of the telescope
    º List of light sources
    º Timeline of electromagnetism
    º Timeline of lighting technology
    º Timeline of microscope technology
    º Timeline of photography technology
    º Timeline of telescope technology
Absorption (electromagnetic radiation)
Aspheric lens
    º Attenuation coefficient (Absorption coefficient)
Beer-Lambert law
Black body
Camera obscura, Camera lucida ( see also Hockney-Falco thesis )
Claude glass
Corrective lens
Crookes, William, Crookes radiometer, Crookes tube, Vacuum tube
Diffraction, Diffraction grating
    º Fraunhofer diffraction
    º Fresnel diffraction
Electronic band structure
    º Conduction band & Valence band
Emissivity, Emission spectrum
Focal length
Fresnel lens
Glasses: History of eyeglasses
Lens (optics): Lensmaker's equation, Radius of curvature (optics)
Lighting (Illumination)
    º Bioluminescence
    º Chemiluminescence
    º Fluorescence
    º Full-spectrum light
    º Incandescence
    º Luminescence
    º Phosphorescence
    º Photoluminescence
Magic lantern (projector)
Mirror, Curved mirror
Newtonian telescope
Nichols, Ernest Fox, Nichols radiometer
Opacity (optics)
Optical microscope
Opacity (optics)
Optical depth
    º Nonlinear optics
Photography & History of photography
Photonic metamaterials
Pinhole camera
Planck's law of radiation
    º Electromagnetic radiation
    º Ionizing radiation
    º Irradiance
    º Radiant barrier
    º Radiant intensity
    º Radiation pressure
    º Radiative transfer, Form factor (radiative transfer)
    º Thermal radiation, Transmission coefficient
Ray (optics)
Reflection (physics), Diffuse reflection, Reflection coefficient, Reflectivity, Surface type, Scattering from rough surfaces, Specular reflection
Refraction, Refractive index
Snell's law
Sonoluminescence emission of short bursts of light from imploding bubbles excited by sound in a liquid
Stefan-Boltzmann law
Telescopes: Optical, Radio
Total internal reflection, Optical fiber
Transparency and translucency
    º Transmittance
    º Transparent materials
Wien's displacement law
Young, Thomas (scientist)

WWW Virtual Library: Optical Science and Engineering


Chroma Zone - current & past issues The Munsell Lab
Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
Digital Journal of Ophthalmology
Molecular Vision
Nature - Welcome


also see.. §ENGINEERING§, Optics

DIRECTORIES-Optical Engineering

also see.. §ART§

A. Kitaoka, Japanese Artist: Latest Works & before July 2003
The Ames Room The Picture Palace

Archimedes' Laboratory, Puzzles & Tests, About
Optical Illusions
Illusions and Impossible Objects Links from Sharon Silva
Illusiot: Finland (

IllusionWorks siteA Source! Bob Ausborne

Illusions sur le net Links
Impossible Figures John H. Krantz, Ph.D.
Interdisciplinary Illusions a Class Exercise in Web Page Creation
The Internet Webseum of Holography History of Photography
Magic Eye

Michael Bach's, Optical Illusions & Visual PhenomenaUse It! (48)

Mike Bristow: A Collection of Optical Illusions
Can you say it?
Count the dots!
Elephants Legs
Moving Circles
Tractor Tyre

More perception from the Exploratorium The Exporatorium
Optical Illusion Info McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology
Optical Illusions Page Walt Whitman High School kits, live special effects for haunted imagineers, Pepper's Ghost
Some Notes on Reversible Perspective reversible perspective in the Necker cube, analysis
Visual Illusions Gallery Dave Landrigan
World of Escher

also see.. §Audio Perception§, §Psychological Perception§

Brain Twist Tools For Exploration
Cognition - Perception W.W. Norton & Company
Facial Analysis U California, Santa Cruz
Kubovy Perception Lab University of Virginia
Monocular Sensory Processes Dr. Fendick
NASA Vision Group
Optometry School Visual Sciences Group Indiana U
The Physics of Art and Visual Perception: Assigned Journals: U Toledo
The Physiology of Perception Walter J. Freeman
The Physiology of the Senses Online, U Western Ontario, Dept Physiology & Pharmacology
Professur fur Allgemeine Psychologie: Prof. Dr. Hans Irtel
Psychology of Perception - Related disciplines Dennis Des Chene, Johns Hopkins
Sensation and Perception Tutorials John H. Krantz, Ph.D.
Sensory Processes - Vision W.W. Norton & Company
Vision Research WWW Servers Vision research at UC Irvine
Vision Science Research - Human and Animal Vision
Visual Perception P. Thompsom, York U

York UUse It!
The Joy of Visual Perception: A Web Book by Peter K.Kaiser & Rod Potter ( Contents ), Links
ViperLib visual perception resource library of images and presentation material, Search

How We See: The First Steps of Human VisionUse It! with history:

COLOR SOFTWARE industrial color matching & management software

Stanford Vision and Imaging Science and Technology

Visionary - Dictionary for Study of Vision Lars Liden, Dept Cognitive & Neural Systems, Boston U

How We See: The First Steps of Human VisionUse It! with history:

Optics for Kids! by the Optical Society of America (OSA)
Ask an Expert
What is Optics?

Color Influence of Color & Design on Carpet life
CGSD's Color Science Library - Color Space Converter Commercial Product, $575
Color Separations color separations for silkscreening
Software: ColorComposer colors on the display will match printer colors
Tru-Color Systems Home Page


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