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also see.. Constitution, Environment, §POLITICS§, §(POLITICS) Reform§, Prison Law, About, News, SiteMap

Brennan Center for Justice at NYU Law School, About

FAMM: Families Against Mandatory Minimums, nonviolent sentencing
HALT organization of Americans for Legal Reform
Global Courts Network Center for Global Change and Governance, Rutgers U

People for the American Way, About, news
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Vera Institute fair, humane, efficient public policies & practices

also see.. Forums

American Bar Association (ABA)
Hispanic National Bar Association




dmoz Open Directory | Google | Wikipedia | Yahoo

Cornell U Law School
Commercial Law & the Uniform Commercial Code
Uniform Business and Financial Laws Locator
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Commercial Law Research Resources & Links Commercial Law, Forum
• Library, Documents, Briefs, Articles and Books

Hieros Gamos (, Commercial and Contract Law
Lender Liability Law Page


American Bar Association (ABA), Resources
Consumer's Guide to Legal Help
Breast Cancer Patients Rights
Divorce Information
General Law Info
Handbook for Senior Citizens
Practical Law Series Online

Class Actions at Central Notice Listing of Lawsuits to Recover Money & Protect Your Rights
Consumerama boycotts, class actions, protest sites,
The Consumer Law Page: Alexander, Hawes & Audet, LLP
Counsel Quest Business and Consumer Law
Current Actions class action Links
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Lawdisks legal forms for bankruptcy, child support & real estate closings

National Consumer Law CenterUse It! (NCLC) advice, initiatives, Links, manuals, training

National Legal Aid & Defender Association
Public Citizen Litigation Group info clearinghouse, issues, jobd, Supreme Court Assistance
Securities Class Action Clearinghouse Stanford U Law School

also see.. Constitutional Amendment Process | §POLITICS§, Reform public education on the principles of constitutional republican government
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    º Category:Amendments to the United States Constitution
    º Category:Official documents of the United States
    º Category:United States Constitution
    º Category:United States constitutional commentary
    º Category:United States constitutional law
    º History of the United States Constitution
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United States Constitution
    º Preamble to the United States Constitution
    º Article 1
    º Article 2
    º Article 3
    º Article 4
    º Article 5
    º Article 6
    º Article 7
History of the United States Constitution
List of amendments to the United States Constitution
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    º 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th
    º 11th, 12th, Reconstruction Amendments 13th-15th, 13th, 14th, 15th, 16th, 17th, 18thn, 19th, 20th
    º 21st, 22nd, 23rd, 24th, 25th, 26th, 27th
Preamble to the United States Constitution

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also see.. Constitution, §(POLITICS) Reform§

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Preserving the Constitution May 21, 2013

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    º Category:Amendments to the United States Constitution
Article One of the United States Constitution
Article Five of the United States Constitution
Convention to propose amendments to the United States Constitution
Labunski, Richard journalism professor (Ph.D., political science) advocating Constitutional reform
    º The Second Constitutional Convention: How the American People Can Take Back Their Government, 2000
Lessig, Lawrence (1961) law professor calling for state-based promotion of government reform through Second Constitutional Convention
    º Republic, Lost: How Money Corrupts Congress-and a Plan to Stop It
Levinson, Sanford (1941) law professor and Constitutional law expert calling for a Second Constitutional Convention
    º Balkinization (blog)
    º Our Undemocratic Constitution: Where the Constitution Goes Wrong (and How We the People Can Correct It)
Reynolds, Glenn (1960) Law professor discussing Second Constitution to combat "the worst political class in our country's history."
Sabato, Larry J.
    º A More Perfect Constitution proposes constitutional convention to substantially overhaul Constitution
Safire, William (1929-2009) NY Times political columnist called for constitutional changes curbing money in politics
Second Constitutional Convention of the United States proposal by scholars and activists for reform by Constitutional overhaul
State ratifying conventions
United States Constitution#Procedure (for Amendments)


    º Category:Contract case law
    º Category:Contract law
    º Category:Sureties
    º Category:Tort law
    º Contract
    º United States contract law
Acquiescence acceptance, agreement or permission by silence, passiveness or by not making objections
Anticipatory repudiation declaration that the contractual party does not intend to abide by contractual obligations
Arbitration clause
As is
Assignment (law) transfer of rights from the contractual assignor to the assignee
Atiyah, Patrick (1931-)
    º The Rise and Fall of Freedom of Contract (book) historical
Bankruptcy legal status for nonpayment in an effort to recoup a portion of property for restructuring
Black, Henry Campbell (1860-1927)
    º Black's Law Dictionary
Breach of contract
    º Fundamental breach so fundamental that it permits termination of contract ane entitling suit for damages
Capacity (law) amendments to rights, duties and obligations
Case law
Caveat emptor let the buyer beware doctrine governing the sale of real property after closing
Civil law notary
Cloud on title or title defect, often provides option to back out of a contract
    º Notary public is not a civil law notary
Collateral contract
Commodate loan returned in essence, without deterioration
Common law case law or precedent developed by judges, courts and similar tribunals rather than legislative or executive branch action
Competition law promotes or maintains market competition by regulating anti-competitive conduct
Complete contract perfect and ideal, but unattainable contract forseeing all future events
Conditional limitation
Conflict of Laws procedural rules determining which legal system and jurisdiction applies to a dispute
Consideration anything of value promised to another under contract
Consideration under English law
Constitutional documents defines the existence of an entity and regulates structure and control of the entity and its members
Contingency (philosophy)
Contract of carriage carrier of goods or passengers
Contract (conflict)
Contract of sale
Contractual term
Contract theory
Cover (law) recover difference between cost of goods offered and actually purchased
    º #Compensatory damages
    º Consequential damages
    º Expectation damages
    º Incidental damages
    º Penal damages invalid and excessive, above and beyond the loss suffered as a result of breach
    º Reliance damages
Deadlock provision how disagreements on key issues are to be resolved
Debits and credits
    º Fair debt collection
    º Fair Debt Collection Practices Act
    º Estoppel by deed deed grantor/seller is estopped (barred) from denying the truth of the deed
    º Quitclaim deed owner/grantor terminates (quits) his right and claim to property by transfering rights to recipient/grantee
Default rule rule of law that can be overridden by a contract, trust, will, or other agreement
Delegation (law) giving another person the responsibility of carrying out a contract
Deviation (law) change or departure from a planned contractual course or design
Document automation or document assembly, increasingly used to assemble legal documents, contracts and letters
    º might automate all conditional text, variable text, and data to minimize data entry, reduce proof-reading tine and risks due to human error
Due diligence
Duress in English law defence due to forced or compelling circumstances or threats
Duty of care requiring standard of reasonable care while performing acts that could foreseeably harm others
Equitable assignment
Equity of redemption
Escalator clause change in the agreement price when a factor beyond control affects value
Essentialia negotii minimum contract contents to be legally binding
Estoppel precludes denying or asserting anything contrary to legally established truth
    º Acquiescence, Estoppel by failure to challenge or refute a claim within a reasonable time after provision of legal notice
    º Assignor estoppel barring a patent's seller (assignor) from attacking the patent's validity in subsequent patent infringement litigation
    º Collateral estoppel prevents a party to a litigation from relitigating an issue on a different cause of action
    º Direct estoppel prevents relitigation of a previously ruled upon issue in an alternate claim under the same lawsuit
    º Estoppel by deed rules of evidence prevent a litigant from denying a truth
    º Judicial estoppel precludes a party from taking a position contrary to earlier legal proceedings
    º Legal estoppel assignor or grantor is not permitted subsequently to deny the validity of title to the subject matter of the assignment or grant
    º Laches (equity) Estoppel for delay, unreasonable delay pursuing a right or claim wherein changed circumstances preclude that claim
    º Licensee estoppel overturned doctrine that a licensee under a patent would not be permitted to challenge the validity of the patent
    º Proprietary estoppel legal claim to land use rights of a non-owner, which may also be applied to disputed transfers of ownership
Exclusion clause restricting rights of the contractual parties
Excuse (legal) grant or exemption from potential liability for a group sharing a common characteristic
External risk risks produced by a non-human source, beyond human control
Extinguishment destruction of a right or contract when the subject of the contract is extinguished...
Forbearance special agreement to delay a foreclosure that is due from lack of payment
Force majeure frees contractual parties from liability or obligation when extraordinary event or circumstance beyond control prevents fulfillment of obligations
Formal contract signed under seal
Forum selection clause designates adjudicating body for contracts with Conflict of Laws element
    º Conflict of Laws
Four corners (law) meaning of a written contract, will or deed as represented solely by its textual content
    º Extrinsic fraud
    º Intrinsic fraud intentionally false representation
Franchise agreement
Franchise Rule defines acts or practices that are unfair or deceptive in the franchise industry
Freedom of contract freedom of individuals and corporations to form contracts under law without government restrictions
Frustration of purpose unforeseen event undermines a party's principal purpose for entering into a contract
Gentlemen's agreement relies upon the honor of the parties, rather than being enforceable
Habitability a common law right of a tenant or Legal doctrine
Heads of Agreement (law) non-binding document outlining the main issues relevant to a tentative agreement
Heads of loss categories of damage that the contractual party may incur
IDIQ Indefinite delivery/indefinite quantity
Illegal agreement not enforcable because the purpose is to achieve an illegal end
Illusory promise unenforcable due to failure or lack of consideration
    º Consideration anything of value promised to another when making a contract
    º Consideration under English law
Implied authority appearances implying the ability of an individual to make a legally binding contract on behalf of an organization
Implied covenant of good faith and fair dealing
Impossibility excuse for the nonperformance of contractual duties based on circumstances making those duties impossible
Impracticability excuses performance of a contractual duty that is unfeasibly difficult or expensive
Incorporation of terms in English law inclusion of clauses in ways recognised by the courts as valid
Indemnity paid compensation for loss whereby responsibilty for the loss is not necessarily implied
Indenture in modern usage, an instrument used for commercial debt or real estate transaction
Integration clause or merger clause or entire agreement clause declares contract a complete and final agreement, often placed toward the end of the contract
Intention to be legally bound court's presumption parties wished contractual agreement to be enforceable by a court
Interlineation typically initialed and dated sentence newly inserted between previous sentences in a contract to clarify, useful if some conditions later become unclear
Invitation to treat distinguished from a binding offer
Issuer develops, registers and sells securities for the purpose of financing operations
Land contract
Laches (equity) unreasonable delay pursuing a right or claim wherein changed circumstances preclude that claim, estoppel for delay
Legal doctrine established through precedent in the common law
Lemon law American state laws compensating for cars that repeatedly fail to meet acceptable standards
Liquidated damages compensation to injured party upon a specific breach
Listing contract gives real estate broker the right to offer seller's property for sale
Mandatory arbitration
• Marriage contract
    º Postnuptial agreement
    º Prenuptial agreement
Material transfer agreement (MTA) governs the transfer of tangible research materials between organizations for separate research purposes
Meeting of the minds mutual agreement, mutual assent or consensus ad idem describes contractual parties' common understanding or intentions
    º often a necessary part of the contract
Mirror image rule unequivocal and absolute acceptance requirement, states an offer must be accepted exactly without modifications
Misrepresentation one contractual party's false statement of fact to induce the other into the contract
Mistake (contract law) an erroneous belief at contracting that can lead to voiding the agreement
Negative pledge prohibits contractual party from creating security interests over specified property
    º Security interest obligated assets to secure payment of a debt
No-bid contract sole source contract, implying there is only one available provider of services under contract
Non-compete clause agreement not to pursue a similar profession or trade in competition
Non est factum the contract signature was signed non-negligently by mistake, without knowledge of meaning, which may void the contract
Non-repudiation often involves a challenge (repudiation) to the authenticity of a signature
Notary public
    º Civil law notary
Novation replacing a contractual obligation with a new obligation, or a contractual party with a new party
Nudum pactum a promise that is not legally enforceable for want of consideration (something in exchange)
Offer and acceptance analysis of whether an agreement exists between two parties
Officious intermeddler noncontractual party expecting remuneration for unsolicited services
Open-book contract agreement on margin plus sellers costs
Option (finance) derivative financial instrument specifying contract for future transaction at reference price plus a premium based on time to option expiration
    º buyer gains right, without obligation, to purchase
    º Option contract
Oral contract in contrast to a written contract, however there may be written or other physical evidence of the oral contract
Output contract producer agrees to sell, and buyer agrees to purchase, entire production
Parol evidence rule evidence of unincluded past agreements or terms not considered part of current contract
Part exchange one party provides part money and part goods/services, the other, only goods/services
Partial integration contract contains some but not all terms of agreement
Peppercorn (legal) very small payment or nominal consideration to satisfy requirements for creation of a legal contract
Perfect tender rule right for a buyer to reject goods that fail to conform exactly to contract description, ordinarily superseding substantial performance claims
    º Substantial performance contractual performance is deficient through no willful act, yet substantial enough for payment, less damages suffered from deficiencies
Posting rule receiver acceptance takes effect when a letter is posted
Pre-emption right right to acquire a property in preference to any other
Pre-existing duty rule a contractual party cannot change terms without consideration (remuneration)
Privity of contract a contract cannot confer rights or impose obligations upon noncontractual parties
Psychological contract mutual beliefs, perceptions, and informal obligations between employer/employee
Publishing contract between a publisher and a writer or author
Puffery nonliteral, subjective, and exaggerated promotional claims
Punch list contract document listing tasks in architecture and building trades for project completion
Quantum meruit what one has earned or reasonable value of services
Quasi-contract or implied-in-law contract, to avoid injustice and to ensure fairness, a legal substitute for a contract that should have been formed, though it was not
Quitclaim deed owner/grantor terminates (quits) his right and claim to property by transfering rights to recipient/grantee
Real estate contract
Recording contract between a record label and recording artist(s)
Rectification (law) a court ordered change in a written document to reflect what it ought to have said
• Repudiation
    º Anticipatory repudiation declaration that the contractual party does not intend to abide by contractual obligations
    º Non-repudiation often involves a challenge (repudiation) to the authenticity of a signature
Requirements contract seller supplies required volume, purchaser deals exclusively with seller
Rescission discretionary unmaking of a contract or unwinding a transaction in an attempt to restore a previous status quo
Restitution gains-based recovery as opposed to the law of compensation for loss-based recovery
Restraint of trade illegal, unless in the interests of the public at large, agreement designed to restrain another's trade
Restrictive covenant legal obligation imposed in a deed by the seller upon the buyer of real estate
Retainer agreement advanced pay for work to be specified later
Revocation annulment, reversal, recall or making void
Right of first refusal contractual right of option to enter a transaction according to specified terms, prior to a third party; similar to a call option
Risk of loss contractual determination of who bears the risk for damage after sale and prior to delivery
Rothbard, Murray (1926-1995)
    º The Ethics of Liberty (book) Chapt 19 introduced the title-transfer theory of contract enforcement
Scienter prior knowledge of the wrongness
Secured transaction security interest of owner's collateral acquired by lender with entitlement to foreclose or reposses in the event of default
Security agreement contract governing a secured financial transaction
Security interest property interest over assets to secure an obligation, usually for payment of a debt
Severability provision stating that if parts of contract are illegal or unenforceable, the remainder is still binding
Severable contract comprised of several partial contracts; a severability clause will state that breaching of one part does not breach the whole contract
Shareholders' agreement agreement amongst the shareholders of a company supplementing or superseding its constitutional documents
Shrink wrap contract contractual agreements and terms which can only be read and accepted after opening the product
Specific performance order of a court usually requiring a contractual act as an alternative the award of damages
Standard form contract adhesion contract or boilerplate contract, does not allow for negotiation; there exists a possibility for unconscionability
    º Unconscionability defense against contract enforcement based on excessively unfair terms
Standstill agreement instrument of a hostile takeover defense, alternatively an agreement not to deal with third parties for a period of time
Statute of frauds requirement for a signed writing with sufficient content to evidence the contract
Statutory law written law (opposed to oral or customary law) by legislature (opposed to regulatory law by the executive or common law of the judiciary) or by a legislator (in an absolute monarchy)
Statutory holdback requires an party employing a contractor to hold a percentage of payment for a stipulated length of time
Stipulatio Roman Law pattern of contract
Subcontractor signs a contract to perform part or all of the obligations of another's contract
Substantial performance contractual performance is deficient through no willful act, yet substantial enough for payment, less damages suffered from deficiencies
    º contrasted with perfect tender rule
    º Perfect tender rule right for a buyer to reject goods that fail to conform exactly to contract description
Sweetheart deal abnormally favorable contractual arrangement
Synallagmatic contract each party to the contract is bound to provide something, roughly the equivalent to a bilateral, as opposed to a unilatera, contract
Terms of service rules to which one must abide, in order to use a service
Tertius interested third party not privy to the contract
Third-party beneficiary may have the right to sue on a contract, despite not having originally been an active party under it
Ticket cases use or retention of a ticket or document with terms binding one to those terms, whether or not the terms are read; use is analogous to signing the document
Time is of the essence agreement to perform service within agreed period to avoid material harm
    º Reasonable time time necessary, to conveniently provide service, as soon as circumstances permit; vague term causing litigation problems
Title (property) rights in a piece of property from ownership of either a legal interest or an equitable interest
    º different rights may be separated and held by different parties
    º distinct from possession, a right that is not necessarily sufficient to prove ownership
Title retention clause Romalpa clause, title to goods remains vested in the seller until buyer's obligations (usually purchase price payment) are fulfilled
Title-transfer theory of contract Murray N. Rothbard's libertarian theory of an ethical, objective way to enforce contracts
Tort breach of a civil duty (other than a contractual duty)
Transaction document legally relevant printed, mailed or electronic document, which if delivered to the post office, conform to the posting rule
    º Posting rule receiver acceptance takes effect when a letter is posted
Will (law)
Uberrima fides utmost good faith doctrine governing insurance contracts that all parties must act in good faith, making full declaration of all material facts, contrasted with Caveat emptor
    º Caveat emptor let the buyer beware doctrine governing the sale of real property after closing
Unconscionability defense against contract enforcement based on excessively unfair terms
Underwriting large financial service provider (bank, insurer, investment house) processes for provision of equity capital, insurance, mortgage or credit
Underwriting contract between an underwriter and an issuer of securities
Undue influence taking advantage of a position of power makes contract voidable by the innocent party
Unenforceable in contradistinction to void or voidable, such a contract is valid, but not enforcable by the court
Uniform Commercial Code to harmonize law for commercial transactions
United States contract law
Unsolicited goods (UK) goods delivered not for legitimate business reasons and not previously agreed to be acquired
Verbal contract in contrast to a contract implied by actions, any contract which is expressed in written or spoken words
Void (law) void ab initio (invalid from the outset), an action, document or transaction that is of no legal effect; treateed as if it had never existed or happened, an absolute nullity
Void contract void agreement, cannot be enforced by law and cannot be defined as a contract
Voidable a valid transaction or action which may be annulled by one of the parties; usually in distinction to void ab initio (or void from the outset) and unenforceable
Voidable contract a valid contract to which only one of the contractual parties is bound, which the unbound party, such as a minor may repudiate, thus voiding the contract, hence a cosignature of an responsible adult representive is often necessary
Waiver voluntary relinquishment or surrender of a right or privilege, such as a written disclaimer, exculpatory clauses, releases, or hold harmless clauses, sometimes an unwritten waiver may be declared by person's actions
Warranty assurance that certain facts or conditions are true or will happen
Warranty deed grantor/seller guarantees clear title to real estate and right to sell to grantee/buyer; extends back to the property's origins

also see.. §EDUCATION§
Illinois Institute of Technology: Chicago-Kent College of Law
Schools of Law -Education, Links: rain-making, self-help books,
Pace Law Library Research Pages

Law Resources on the Web:  Dept of Law, London Guildhall U

also see.. Activism, §ENVIRONMENT§, About, News, SiteMap

Community Rights Counsel (CRC), About
Legal Resources

Constitutional Law Foundation, About non-profit public interest law firm, About, News
Air, Forests, Health & Communities, Oceans, Public Lands, Water, Wildlife
Policy and Legislation
Take Action, Urgent Cases

Endangered Environmental Laws, Links
Environmental Law Institute, SiteMap
Environmental Law and Policy Center action, energy, jobs, Links, News, pubs, Search, store, transportation
US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Laws & Regulations

also see.. §TAXES§

dmoz Open Directory | Google | Wikipedia ( alt ) | Yahoo

Cornell U Law School
Estate and Gift Tax: an overview with Feceral statutes, regulations & decisions
    º Federal Estate Tax Internal Revenue Code, 26 U.S.C. 2001
    º Federal Gift Tax Internal Revenue Code, 26 U.S.C. 2501
Estates and Trusts: an overview
Uniform Probate Code Locator

Crash Course in Wills and Trusts, Search
• by Michael T. Palermo, Attorney at Law, Certified Financial Planner
Contents, Estate Planning, Wills, & Trusts, Wills, Trusts, Estates and Probate
Library: Documents, Briefs, Articles and Books
    º Administrators
    º Charities, Constructive Trusts
    º Estate Administration, Executors
    º Funerals and Cemeteries
    º Gifts, Guardianship and Conservatorship
    º Intestate Succession
    º Living wills
    º Personal Representatives, Powers of Appointment, Powers of Attorney, Probate or Contest of Will
    º Survivorship Rights
    º Taxation, Trust Administration, Trustees, Trusts
    º Wills

HowToLaw, New Zealand
How to understand trusts


Abusive Trust Tax Evasion Schemes - Questions and Answer; Basic Trust Law

National Association of Financial and Estate Planning (NAFEP) free & useful information
Estate Planning
Professional Information Center

New Mexico Judicial Education Center (JEC) from U New Mexico, Contents, Search, SiteMap
Probate Judges Handbook, Resources
    º Real Property Located Outside New Mexico

New Mexico, Bernalillo County, Probate Judge'S Office articles on probate, wills, estates...

New Mexico Supreme Court
Probate Forms Law Centers , Legal Encyclopedia
Wills & Estate Planning
Glossary of Estate Planning Terms
Estate Planning
Trusts and Estates
Will last will & testament

also see.. Federal

US Dept Justice, About, Search, SiteMap

also see.. Executive, §FEDERAL§, Judicial, Supreme Court

Code of Federal Regulations Online House of Representatives
Federal Tax Code Online an old snapshot no longer maintained
FedLaw GSA research tool - Federal employees & lawyers Portal U.S. Government Printing Office
Thomas - Legislative Information The Library of Congress
United States Sentencing Commission
U.S. Constitution
U.S. Federal Court Finder & Electronic Reference Desk: Emory U School of Law

also see.. Focus

LAW Directories Open Directory | | Wikipedia | WWW Virtual Library |

American Bar Association (ABA)
Consumer's Guide to Legal Help
Breast Cancer Patients Rights
Divorce Information
General Law Info
Handbook for Senior Citizens
Practical Law Series Online
State and Local Bar Association Directory

Avalon ProjectUse It! Documents in Law, History and Diplomacy, About
at Yale, Law School
Document Collections

Cafe Law Free Legal Information written by Attorneys
Catalaw: Metaindex of Law and Government reviewed in the Tools section of the Internet Prospector
Cyber Law Centre

Use It! EINet Law Resource Page By Subject

Electronic Reference Desk: Emory U School of Law
The Federal Court Locator, Villanova U, School of Law
Hieros GamosUse It! ( Law & Government Portal

Internet Legal Research Compass
from Villanova U, School of Law
Federal Web Navigator
• Court Locators: Federal, State
Immigration Search
Tax Law Locator
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Law:   Social Science Information Gateway (SOSIG)
Law Library Gateway:   Libraries- New York U
Law News Network
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'Lectric Law Library (ads) Tour (required preliminary reading), Rotunda
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Study of Law Study

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Laypeople's Law Lounge Letric Law Library
The Legal Information Institute: Cornell Law School
Legal Resources legal and government resources
Links Families Against Mandatory Minimums
Links: rain-making, self-help books

National Center for State Courts, LinksUse It!
Court Web Sites
Court Topics
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Office of the Law Revision Counsel Use It!United States Code database, About, Search
Classification Tables U.S. Code affected by recently enacted laws
Codification Legislation revise & codify inconsistent, redundant & obsolete laws
Download titles & chapters of the U.S. Code or view list of titles information & attorney contacts by category
Products Page InfoBase, Lexis Law Publishing
Professor Cavaliere from The Practical Lawyer law Journal

Prosecutor.infoUse It! ( alt )

Reference at Your Desk from Archives Library Information Center (
Legal Links to federal law, court opinions, treaties, legal dictionaries & journals & copyright information.

Self-Help Law Center Nolo Press
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ThomasUse It! Legislative information from the Library of Congress, About, FAQ
Historical Documents
U.S. Code

U New Hampshire School of Law, SiteMap ( formerly Franklin Pierce Law Center )
Thomas G. Field, Jr.Use It! Professor of Law
source for intellectual property law

Villanova Center for Information Law and Policy US, International, Library
Washington State Bar Association, Links ($) online databases, reference materials, Search (14 day free trial)
The WWW Virtual Library - Law @ Indiana U, Law School
Yahoo Search: Government: Law: General Information

FOCUS on these sites!
also see.. Find

Law Library of Congress
Guide to Law Online


also see.. Associations legal help & law discussion forums

Requires a person under arrest to be brought before a judge or into court.

Google Search: " habeas corpus"

'Lectric Law Library Legal Lexicon
Habeas Corpus

    º Category:Habeas corpus
    º Category:Human rights
    º Category:Liberalism
Habeas corpus

also see.. §HEALTH & MEDICAL§

The Health Law Resource by William L. Manning

HISTORY Legal History and Philosophy

Dictionary of the History of IdeasUse It! Contents, Search
• from the Electronic Text Center, U Virginia Library
Politics economic, legal, and political ideas and institutions, ideologies and movements

Edward Gibbon: The Idea of Roman Jurisprudence:   Internet Ancient History Sourcebook:   Fordham U
Roman Law Links:   Law Resources on the Web: Dept of Law, London Guildhall U

The Supreme Court Historical Society:
History of the Court, How the Court Works, Learning Center, Publications

also see.. §WORLD§
International Law a brief primer by Nathaniel Burney

Global Legal Information Network Database, National laws from around the world, US Library of Congress
Institutions of the European Union:   European Union Online (Europa)
International Court of Justice - About, Basic documents, Decisions, Publications, Search
International Law (Links):   Law Links: Dept of Law, London Guildhall U
TeB/McP Legal Information Service UK

    º Category:Arms control
    º Category:International Court of Justice
    º Category:International courts and tribunals
    º Category:International Criminal Court
    º Category:International law
    º Category:International law organisations
    º Category:International law scholars
    º Labour law
    º List of international labor organizations
Admiralty law (maritime law)
    º United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
Conflict of laws (private international law)
Crimes Against Humanity and War Crimes Act
Customary international law
Human rights (see rights)
International Commission of Jurists
International community
International court
International Court of Justice
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
International Criminal Court
International criminal law
International humanitarian law
International Institute of Human Rights
International law
International relations
International security
Labour law
    º International Labour Organization (United Nations)
    º International Labor Rights Forum Washington, DC nonprofit advocate for the world's working poor
    º Labour movement
    º Labour power
    º Labor rights
    º List of worker cooperatives
    º Worker cooperative
Maritime law (see Admiralty law)
Posner, Eric (1965-) author & law professor
Public international law
    º Claim rights and liberty rights
    º Economic, social and cultural rights
    º European Convention on Human Rights
    º European Court of Human Rights
    º Human rights
    º Individual and group rights
    º International Bill of Human Rights
    º International Institute of Human Rights
    º Labor rights
    º Negative and positive rights
    º Right to life
    º Three generations of human rights
Sanctity of life
    º 1926 Slavery Convention international treaty under the League of Nations
    º Child slavery
    º Contemporary slavery
    º Forced Labour Convention
    º History of slavery
    º International child abduction
    º Trafficking of children
    º United Nations 1956 Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery
Sources of international law
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
United Nations
    º International Labour Organization
    º United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
    º United Nations General Assembly
    º United Nations Security Council
    º United Nations 1956 Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery
    º Geneva Conventions
    º Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907
    º Laws of war
    º Might makes right
    º War of aggression
    º War crimes

Translink International EDI (Electronic Data Interchange)

also see.. Justice, State & Local, Supreme Court

Administrative Office of U.S. Courts, About project of Alliance for Justice, Judicial Selection
Judicial Selection monitors nominations to ensure fair & independent federal judiciary, News
    º Research & Publications
    º Selection Resources

American Bar Association, Standing Committee on Judicial Independence
Federal Judicial Center

People for the American Way, About
Independent Judiciary

United States Court of Federal Claims
U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit, About, FAQ, News
Circuit/District Map, Court Links
U.S. Constitution

also see.. Judicial, Supreme Court

The word "justice," as still used in law, is more similar to Plato's conception than it is as used in political speculation. Under the influence of democratic theory, we have come to associate justice with equality, while for Plato it has no such implication. "Justice," in the sense in which it is almost synonymous with "law" - as when we speak of "courts of justice" - is concerned mainly with property rights, which have nothing to do with equality.
Bertrand Russell

Justice with Michael Sandel Harvard U lecture series
Watch VideosUse It!

    º Category:Ethical principles
    º Category:Justice
    º Category:Philosophy of law
    º Category:Political philosophy
Asset-based egalitarianism
Christian Egalitarianism
Civil and political rights
Distributive justice
Economic egalitarianism
Economic freedom
Equality before the law
Equality of opportunity
Equality of outcome
Equity (law)
Ethics of justice
Gender equality
Political egalitarianism
Political freedom
Racial equality
Rawls, John (1921-2002)
    º A Theory of Justice 1971, 1975
Social justice

Legal Pad Junior Legal Advice


U.S. House of Representatives
Write your Representative

U.S. Senate

The Master Switch: The Rise and Fall of Information Empires by Tim Wu at Google Books
Network Neutrality

Berkeley Technology Law Journal U California, Berkeley
CNET Article - Internet & Copyright Laws
Index of /pub/journals: American U, Washington College of Law
Law Journal EXTRA! Daily News, Searchable Database
Legal Domain Network USENET discussions
LegalTools Discussion Groups

also see.. §Inventions (ENGINEERING)§, §Publication Dates (LITERATURE)§
US Constitution: “Congress shall have power... To Promote the Progress of Science and Useful Arts, by securing for limited Times, to Authors and Inventors, the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries.”, PlugIns tiff image viewer for Windows web browsers
American Intellectual Property Association
BitLaw Technology Law, 1,800 pages on Patent, Copyright, Trademark, Internet

Brown & Michaels, PC Intellectual Property Home Page
Invention Marketing Companies: Are they for real?Use It!

Canadian Patent Office
Chemical Patents Plus US Search from 1971, images from 1994, JAVA-rotateable 3D-structures

Columbia Copyright Advisory Office (Columbia U)
Fair Use Checklist (pdf)

Copyright in the New World of Electronic Publishing:” U Michigan Press

CreativeCommons.orgUse It! flexible copyright for creative work
Audio, Education & Web, Images, Text, Video

Delphion Research ($) intellectual property network
Gallery of Historic Patents
Search patents ($) some free searches

Electronic Frontier Foundation, About, SiteMap
• copyright laws bias toward intellectual property ownership & away from the right to thought & speach

European Patent Office events, information centres, News, presenation, Search & Index, toolbox

Google PatentsUse It! books & software

Harry Ransom Center, U Texas, Austin
Locating U.S. Copyright Holders

The Independent Inventor:   Lawrence Kamm Home Page
INEEL - TTC - Patent Search:   INEEL Technology Transfer and Commercialization ($) software for United States Patent and Trademark Office patent viewing/saving/printing
Intellectual Property Owners Association, About
In the Courts, Issues and Policies, IP Info News

InventNet.comUse It! associations, attorneys, classified, Forum, inventions, Links, News, patent search... ($) PatentEase Software to draft and file patents with the US PTO
• FAQs: General Patents, PatentEase intellectual property, Search, technical disclosures

Laura N. Gasaway Professor of Law, U North Carolina, Chapel Hill: Articles
When U.S. Works Pass into the Public Domain & definition of a public domain work

Law and the Internet: Organizations and ProjectsUse It! articles, Links
from: Digital Commerce Center, The EC2 Incubator Project - About, Site Map

Lawrence LessigUse It! against copyright interpretations stifling innovation & discourse
A Short Biography
Free Culture online book

Lemelson-MIT Program, About, Search, SiteMap
    º Invention & Patents
    º Science & Invention Education, News
Inventor's Handbook
Prizes and Awards
Copyright and Libraries
Intellectual Freedom and Libraries
Web Pages, Digitization Projects by Libraries and Legal Issues - U.S. Patent Classification

MIT Open CoursewareUse It! All Courses Index
Sloan School of Management
    º Patents, Copyrights, and the Law of Intellectual Property

National Association for Music Education (MENC) About, Links, News, SiteMap
Copyright Center

National Inventor Fraud Center, Inc., Links
Hiring a Service Provider
Inventor First Steps, License Your Patent, Patent Protection, Profiting

NET ACT Committee Report-House Rpt. 105-339-NO ELECTRONIC THEFT: Thomas-Library of Congress (with IBM) Patent Search U.S. Patent & Trademark Office (USPTO) patent descriptions, images
• Links: Education, Forums, Government Agencies, Inventors' Resources, Legal

Patent Information U of Houston Libraries

PATEX, Canada, About Searching Patents & Trademarks
Wonderful World of Wacky Patents
    º Associations
    º Consulting and Market Research
    º IP: Legal Guides, Management Services & Software, Software Protection
    º Patent: Agents, Data Analysis, Offices
    º Resources: Copyright, Inventors'
Copyright for Educators

Public Domain Enhancement Act defeated 2004 legislation to overturn Copyright Term Extension Act, FAQ
Petition to expand the public domain by revising recent changes in copyright law fortifying & defending information commons, About, News
Copyright Solutions
Intellectual Property
Public Domain

Reference at Your Desk from Archives Library Information Center (
Legal Links to federal law, court opinions, treaties, legal dictionaries & journals & copyright information. (Collaborative Genetics, Inc.) Links: Patents

Stanford U Libraries & Academic Information Resources
Copyright and Fair Use blogs, tweets, primary materials, books, web links Portal for artists & writers looking for self help legal information
A Teacher's Guide to Fair Use and Copyright from The New Media Classroom: Voices from the Western Plains online exposition of Hi-Tech Engineering & Medical/Life Science products

United States Copyright Office:   About, Basics, FAQ, News, Search Records
Information Circulars and Factsheets

United States Inventors Association (USIA)

U.S. Patent & Trademark OfficeUse It! FAQs, Glossary, Help, News, SiteMap
    º Viewers: TIFF image Viewers for Patent ImagesUse It!
• How to: Search, Use this Site, Access Patent Full-page Images.
Inventor Resources
Patents: Search, File, Status
    º Forms
    º General Information Concerning Patents
    º Laws, Regulations, Policies & Procedures
Trademarks: Search, File, Status

U New Hampshire School of Law, SiteMap
Thomas G. Field, Jr.Use It! Professor of Law
    º Avoiding Patent, Trademark and Copyright Problems
    º Copyright, Patent and Trademark Basics
    º Seeking Cost-Effective Patents
    º Trademarks and Business Goodwill
    º Converting Intellectual Assets into Property
    º Copyright for Computer Authors
    º Copyright in Written Work
    º Copyright in Visual Arts
    º Copyright on the Internet
    º Seeking Cost-Effective Patents
    º So You Have an Idea

U Texas System: Crash Course in CopyrightUse It!
Clearing Rights for Multimedia Works
Copyright Crash Course Online Tutorial
Copyright in the Library
Copyright Presentations
Courseware Contracts
Fair Use of Copyrighted Materials
Who Owns What? whom to ask for permission & rights in collaborative work

    º Category:Copyright infringement
    º Category:Copyright law
    º Category:Copyright law lists
    º Category:Copyright legislation
    º Category:Intellectual property law
    º Category:Open content
    º Category:Patent law
    º Category:Public domain
    º History of patent law
    º List of countries' copyright length based on publication and creation dates
Anti-copyright notice
Ashcan copy
Authors' rights
Berne three-step test
Chemical patent
Commercial use of copyleft works
Common law copyright
    º Philosophy of copyright
    º Poor man's copyright
    º Related rights
    º Right to quote
    º Software copyright
    º Substantial similarity
    º Tangibility
    º Threshold of originality
    º United States copyright law: Duration of copyright, Copyright Renewal Act of 1992
Copyright for Creativity
Copyright infringement
Copyright Licensing Agency, The
Copyright misuse
Copyright notice
Copyright registration
Copyright on religious works
Copyright term
Copyright troll
Creative work
Creator ownership
Crown copyright
Derivative work
Digital rights management
Double patenting
Economics and patents
Fair dealing
Fair use
File copying
First to file and first to invent
Foundation for a Free Information Infrastructure
Generic brand
History of patent law
Intellectual property
International Copyright Act
Independent inventor
Internet as a source of prior art
Internet as a source of prior art
Inventive step and non-obviousness
Inventor (patent)
Inventor's notebook
Legal aspects of file sharing
Literary executor
Literary property
Maintenance fee (patent)
Manufacturing clause
Method (patent)
Moral rights (copyright law)
Novelty (patent)
Open Knowledge
Open Invention Network
Open Music Model
Open Patent Alliance
Open Rights Group
Opposition proceeding
Originating application
Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property
Patent Act
Patent aggregation
Patent Busting Project
Patent Commons
Patent court
Patent drawing
Patent engineer
Patent holding company
Patent Information News
Patent infringement
Patent Law Treaty
Patent map
Software patent
Patent pending
Patent portfolio
Patent troll
Patent visualisation
Patent World
Patentable subject matter
Person having ordinary skill in the art
Patent pool
Patent thicket
Performance rights organisation
Photography and the law
Prior art
Priority right
Public Patent Foundation
Publication right
Reverse engineering
    º Radio music ripping
Software patent
    º Software patent debate
State of the art
Technological alliance
Term of patent
Transfer (patent)
Triadic patent
Unity of invention
Utility model
World Intellectual Property Organization Copyright Treaty (free registration required)

WikiSource, Free CultureUse It! online book by Lawrence Lessig

World Intellectual Property Organization
10 Copyright Best Practices for Educators
A brief explanation of "Fair Use"
CIS Fair Use Legal Experts Answer Fair Use Questions Stanford Center for Internet and Society
Copyright Basics for Teachers
Copyright for Educators (Fair Use), (Multimedia Guidelines)
Copyright, Exceptions, and Fair Use: Crash Course... #3
Copyright, Fair Use, & Education
Copyright and the Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction
Fair Use Of Copyrighted Material in Documentaries
Follow the Four Factors of Fair Use
How Do Online Copyright and Fair Use Work?
How I Use Movie Clips in my Videos with Fair Use|Truly Social

also see.. Activism, §PRISONS§

Prison Litigation Reform Act Fedral Law, April 26, 1996
Prison Act Struck Down Ninth Circuit Court of Appeal
Prison Law Page The Other Side of the Wall

Index - Find a Lawyer
LawInfo.comSource Search Legal Representation & Information Database


Hospice Patients Alliance, SiteMap
Find an Attorney

Last Acts clearinghouse, improving end-of-life care, news, About, Search, SiteMap
National Senior Citizens Law Center: About, Cases, Links, News, Publications legal solutions, Elder Law ( Links )
SeniorLaw Home Page


Google Books
Brownlow, William Gannaway
    º Ought American slavery to be perpetuated? A debate between Rev. W.G. Brownlow and Rev. A. Pryne
Goodell, William
    º The American Slave Code 1853
Hammond, James Henry
    º Selections from the Letters and Speeches of the Hon. James H. Hammond of South Carolina
Harper, William
    º The Pro-slavery Argument
Hurd, John Codman
    º The Law of Freedom and Bondage in the United States, Vol.2 1862
Palmer, Benjamin Morgan
    º Thanksgiving sermon 1861
Priest, Josiah
    º Bible Defence of Slavery, Or, The Origin, History, and Fortunes of the Negro Race
    º Slavery, as it Relates to the Negro, or African Race
Swaney, Charles Baumer
    º Episcopal Methodism and Slavery
Wilson, Henry
    º History of the Rise and Fall of the Slave Power in America (3 Vols), Vol.2 1879

Internet Archive
The law of freedom and bondage in the United States (1858)

also see.. Judicial, §STATES§

American Bar Association
Legal Information
State and Local Bar Association Directory

Internet Legal Research Compass
from Villanova U, School of Law
State Court Locator
Free Legal Resources
Products Page InfoBase

National Center for State Courts, LinksUse It!
Court Web Sites
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Prosecutor.infoUse It! ( alt ) from

Arizona, Supreme Court, Self-Service Center

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Self Help Center

Michigan, Courts

Minnesota, State Court System ( SiteMap )

Mississippi State Bar, Consumer Assist Program

Mississippi ( SiteMap )
Supreme Court
    º State Judiciary

Missouri, Judiciary

Montana ( SiteMap ), State Agency Listing,
District Courts
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Nevada Supreme Court

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New Jersey, Judiciary
Legal Resources

New Jersey Legal Information Board

New Mexico: Juciciary, Links
Case Lookup & Court Location, Intro
Publications and Forms

New Mexico Courts Information System, NM State Judiciary

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North Dakota, Supreme Court ( SiteMap )
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    º District Courts of Appeal

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Pennsylvania, Unified Judicial System
FAQ, Guide

Puerto Rico, Office of Court Administration

Rhode Island, Judiciary
South Carolina Bar Association

South Carolina, Judicial Branch

South Dakota, Unified Judicial System

Tennessee, Administrative Office of the Courts

Texas State Bar

Texas, Texas Judiciary online
Supreme Court

Utah State Courts

Vermont Judiciary, SiteMap

Virginia, Courts

Washington, Courts
Washington Law Center free civil legal services for low-income persons & seniors
Washington Northwest Justice Project, Links, Glossary

Washington State Bar Association, FAQ, Links
Access to Justice

Washington, Courts ( Search, SiteMap )
Self Help
State Law Library

West Virginia, Court System, Supreme Court of Appeals ( SiteMap )
Self-Help Center

Wisconsin, Court System
Self-Help Center

Wisconsin State Bar ( About, SiteMap

Wyoming, Judicial Branch
Law Library
    º Documents

also see.. Federal, Judicial, Justice, §POLITICS§ Search Supreme Court
The Supreme Court by Jeffrey Rosen; Jan Crawford Greenburg interviewer
Corporations Are Not People: Why They Have More Rights Than You Do and What You Can Do About It Jeffrey Clements
Justices Scalia and Ginsburg on the First Amendment Kalb Report interview

Decisions of the U.S. Supreme Court Search
Congressman McGovern Introduces the People's Rights Amendment
    º People's Rights Amendment

Google Books
Clements, Jeffrey
    º Corporations Are Not People: Why They Have More Rights Than You Do and What You Can Do About It
Rosen, Jeffrey
    º The Supreme Court: the personalities and rivalries that defined America, FedLaw - Supreme Court now mandated by state standards documents - cases, concepts, teaching resources

Supreme Court of the United StatesUse It! About ( Overview ), Links, SiteMap
Biographies (PDF's) of Current Members of the Supreme Court or 1789 to Present
Docket, Opinions, Recent Decisions

    º Category:American legal scholars
    º Category:Eras of United States Supreme Court history by Chief Justice
    º Category:History of the Supreme Court of the United States
    º Category:Supreme Court of the United States
    º Category:United States Supreme Court justices
    º Category:Lists of United States Supreme Court cases by court
    º List of United States Supreme Court cases
    º List of United States Supreme Court cases by the Marshall Court
    º List of United States Supreme Court cases by the Rehnquist Court
    º List of United States Supreme Court cases by the Roberts Court
    º List of United States Supreme Court cases by the Warren Court
    º Lists of United States Supreme Court cases by volume
    º Portal:Supreme Court of the United States
    º Timeline of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States
Samuel Alito (1950) 2006 by W. Bush
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States
Brandeis, Louis (1856-1941) 1916-39 by Wilson
Brennan, William J., Jr. (1906-1997) 1956-90 by Eisenhower
Breyer, Stephen (1938) 1994 by Clinton
Burger, Warren E. (1907-1995) 1969-86 Chief Justice by Nixon
    º Warren Court
Catron, John (1786-1865) 1837-65 by Jackson
Chase, Samuel (1741-1811) 1796-1811 by Washington
Chief Justice of the United States
Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission
Douglas, William O. (1898-1980) 1939-75 by Franklin Roosevelt; longest-serving justice
Fortas, Abe (1910-1982) 1965-69 by Lyndon Johnson
Frankfurter, Felix (1882-1965) 1939-62 by Franklin Roosevelt
Ginsburg, Ruth Bader (1933) 1993 by Clinton
History of the Supreme Court of the United States
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, Jr. (1841-1935) 1902-32 by Theodore Roosevelt
Kagan, Elena (1960) 2010 by Obama
Kennedy, Anthony (1936) 1988 by Ronald Reagan
Living Constitution
Marshall, John (1755-1835) 1801–35 Chief Justice by John Adams; longest serving Chief Justice
Marshall, Thurgood (1908-1993) 1967-91 by Lyndon Johnson; first African-American justice
Sandra Day O'Connor (1930) 1981-2006 by Reagan; first female justice
Scalia, Antonin (1936) 1986 by Ronald Reagan
Roberts, John (1955) 2005 Chief Justice by W. Bush
    º Roberts Court
Rosen, Jeffrey commentator on legal affairs for The New Republic
Sotomayor, Sonia (1954) 2009 by Obama; first Hispanic justice
Souter, David (1939) 1990-2009 by H. W. Bush
Supreme Court of the United States with current justices list
Taft, William Howard (1857-1930) 1921–30 by Harding; only president in both offices
Thomas, Clarence (1948) 1990 by H. W. Bush
United States Reports official record of Supreme Court proceedings
Earl Warren (1891-1974) 1953 Chief Justice by Eisenhower
    º Warren Court

    º Category:Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States
    º Category:Law and government
Alito, Samuel
Brandeis, Louis
Brennan, William J. Jr.
Burger, Warren E.
Douglas, William O.
Frankfurter, Felix
Ginsburg, Ruth Bader
Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.
Kagan, Elena
Kennedy, Anthony
Marshall, John
Roberts, John G.
Scalia, Antonin
Sotomayor, Sonia
Supreme Court of the United States
Thomas, Clarence

USA Today, Supreme Court index


Google Books
John Grisham
    º The Appeal 2008 Novel based upon former Mississippi Supreme Court Justice, Oliver Diaz
Hot Coffee follows Jamie Leigh Jones’ four-year fight for her day in court
Hot Coffee (HBO Documentary)
Karl Rove: The Architect (PBS Frontline Documentary)

PBS: Frontline
Karl Rove - The Architect
    º Tort Reform in Texas: "Rove's Genius at Work"

    º Category:Tort law
    º Arbitration clause
Common law
Diaz, Oliver E., Jr. (1960-)
Franken, Al Senator: amendment to FY 2010 Defense Appropriations Bill, restricting mandatory arbitration in their employment contracts
Jones, Jamie Leigh 4 yr fight against employer's binding arbitration clause for the right to trial by jury for being drugged & gang-raped on the job
Grisham, John
    º The Appeal 2008 Novel based upon former Mississippi Supreme Court Justice, Oliver Diaz
Hot Coffee (film)
Liebeck v. McDonald's Restaurants
Restitutio in integrum restoration to original condition or full compensation for proved harm
Rove, Karl (1950-) campaigned for tort reform
Tort reform

Law and Legislation Contemporary American legal theory
LawTalk Indiana U
The Legal List Research Tutorial, internet & other

MIT Open CoursewareUse It! All Courses Index, Audio/Video Courses
Sloan School of Management

Nolo's Legal Encyclopedia
Virtual Flash Free Study Software, Compete with world students


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