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Microbial Genomics | §Microbiology & Molecular biology§ | Model Organisms
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§SCIENCE§ | Scientists | Sequencing | Software
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American Society of Gene Therapy
Biotechnology Industry Organization biotechnology companies & centers, academic institutions
Centre for Integrated Genomics, Canada
Council for Responsible Genetics advocates responsible, monitors new technologies
European Society of Gene Therapy (ESGT)
Genetic Manipulation Advisory Committee (GMAC)
Genetics Society of America
Genome Educators Home Page research & education professionals
Human Genome Organisation (HUGO)
International Center for Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology (ICGEB) safe use, developing countries
International Institute of Genetics and Biophysics Forum, library, Links, News, research & sequencing lab
Janan Society of Gene Therapy (JSGT), interdisciplinary gene therapy research
Work Relating to Gene Prediction Symposium on Genome Based Gene Structure Determination

also see.. §Biotechnology§, Mapping & Sequencing, About, FAQ, DAtabases
All Software Projects
News Archive

BioTech Life Science Resources, Tools & Links: U Texas

The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, Inc. (IEEE)
IEEE Virtual Communities free registration required
    º IEEE Bioinformatics & Systems Biology Forum

C. (Caenorhabditis) ELEGANS
also see.. Nematodes

ACEDB database free, used for many different genomic databases
Caenorhabditis elegans WWW Server Genetics and Genomics database, genetics, Genome, tools & vectors
Caenorhabditis elegans WWW Server: calendar, news, Links
C.elegans Introductions & Informatics, mirror, mirror: Farhang Payvar, Ph.D.
elegansNet The Animal Bioinformatics & Research Menu Hubsite
Genome Sequencing Center: Washington U, St. Louis MO
Introduction to Caenorhabditis elegans: U Missouri-Columbia BioTech
Recommended Genetic Nomenclature for Caenorhabditis elegans Jonathan Hodgkin
Sanger Centre, Cambridge
Wadsworth's Wonderful Worms research laboratory - developmental neurobiology, extracellular matrix
What is Caenorhabditis elegans: U Missouri-Columbia

A Clone in Sheep's Clothing: Scientific American, possibilities & ethical dilemmas
Cloning: Are Humans Next?: World Book Encyclopedia
Cloning Hits the Big Time: Scientific American, commercial interests
Cloning For Medicine: Scientific American, creator of Dolly explains drugs, transplants, research
Cloning Special Report: New Scientist
clonoscope - help for clone selection: TAGC
Conceiving a Clone ethics, genetics, molecular biology
The Era of Cloning Man? online book, Earl Watson
Missyplicity Project cloning a dog

New ScientistSee It! editorials, features, news, opinion, Search
Cloning FAQ

Send in the Clones: Scientific American, new technique, clone clones from clones, identical mice
Spark of Science, a Storm of Controversy Princeton opinion survey

Faces of Americawith Henry Louis Gates, Jr.

A structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid 2 April 1953 James Watson and Francis Crick's paper usherING in the new era

DNA from the Beginning animated primer on DNA, genes and heredity
DNA Sequence Analysis Introduction
DNA Structure Interactive Animated Nonlinear Tutorial by Eric Martz (Chime required)
DNA Structures and Chromosome Organisation: Bioinformatik Notes, David Ussery: Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Tech U Denmark, DNA


Benzer Lab Home PageUse It! Seymour Benzer, Cal Tech

The Drosophila Virtual Library Links & lab homepages: Dr. Gerard Manning
Electron micrograph maps of Drosophila melanogaster polytene chromosomes Finland
FlyBase A Database of the Drosophila Genome
FlyView Image database, Drosophila development, genetics& expression patterns

Fruitfly.orgUse It! Download datasets & pubs, Search databases

GadFly Genome Annotation Database of Drosophila
Gene-Finder for Drosophila/invertebrates
Genes Network Database & Java Applets: GeNet IHPCDE
GRAIL Gene Finder for Drosophila (SRSFasta): Oak Ridge National Laboratory
The Interactive Fly Cyberspace guide - Drosophila development & genes: Purdue
McGill Drosophila Genome Project McGill U
Other Drosophila Network Resources: FlyBase
Sequence similarity search against known Drosophila DNA (SRSFasta)
Sleeping and Walking Howard Hughes Medical Institute
TransTerm, a Translational Signal Database New Zealand
Virtual FlyLab
Australian GeneEthics Network forum on environmental, social & ethical impacts
Center for Ethics and Toxics protect vulnerable & susceptible populations, education, risks
Cloning Ethics "genetics and ethics" clearing house - Forums, Journals, Literature, news, Topics

dmoz Open Directory | Google | Virtual Library | Wikipedia | Yahoo

Biology Lecture Series by Dr. John C. Perez

BioTechUse It! Life Science Resources, Tools & Links: U Texas

Biowriters Gene Discovery Page:

Deambulum BIO- NETosphere thematic explorationUse It! Biocomputing, Biology, Medicine, Molecular biology

RNAi@elegansNet - Databases, Literature Searches.. Links, Search
ACeKit (A C. elegans Survival Kit) - Introductions & Informatics
BioCareer - Biomedical, Biotech, & Pharmaceutical Job
DDD - Drug Discovery Directory
MAD - Microarray Directory
NewsStand@elegansNet - Science and News Links, ,Bio-Informatics Databases/Tools/Services
Search@elegansNet Using Top Search and Clustering Engines   Evolution,   Genetics
EDU2 Links to Genetics-related Sites: ABCentral
elegansNet The Animal Bioinformatics & Research Menu Hubsite
Gene international journal on genes, genomes and evolution: Elsevier Science, Glossary, Links, Search
• up-to-date, accurate information, latest genetics research, ethical & associated issues

Gene Discovery Page for the bench scientist with little biocomputing background

Genetics Links: LTU Biochem Home PageUse It! La Trobe U

@Genetics medical related Search Engine
genome gateway Nature Magazine
Human Genetics Educational Material Marshfield Clinic, Marshfield, WI

Institute for Genetic Resources (
Microbial Database sequences: microbial genomes & chromosomes & research laboratory Links

MendelWeb intro's to classical genetics, data analysis, plant science, history of science
Molecular Genetics Jump Station
Nucleic Acids Research
Online Dictionaries and Reference Databases: Rice U
Population Genetics Links to courses, publications, resources, software...

Protocol Online Portal

Quantitative Genetics Resources U Arizona
Telethon Institute of Genetics and Medicine Italy

VCE Biology Students' SiteUse It!   Index,   Biochemistry at LaTrobe U
Cat 1: behavior, cells, disease, homeostasis
Cat 2: glossary, interviews
Cat 3: genetics, evolution

WWW Virtual Library Genetics
Yahoo Search Genetics@Science: Biology

Biotech Basics food biotechnology, genetically modified food
Bovine Growth Hormone: Sierra Club Canada
Bovine Somatotropin-Related Documents
Food Biotechnology Communications Network Canada
Foods Derived from New Plant Varieties Derived Through Recombinant DNA Technology FDA
List of Genetically Altered Food: International Center for Technology Assessment
Living in a GM World (genetically modified world): New Scientist pros and cons
Make Your Choice online poll on genetically modified foods
National Agricultural Biotechnology Council (NABC) forum
National Genetic Resources Program food & agricultural animals, invertebrates, microbes, plants
Partial List Of Genetically Engineered Foods
Poison Plants?: Scientific American, Links
The Pure Food Campaign

Use It! Yahoo Search Issues@Science: Biology: Biotechnology: Genetic Engineering: Food

The Genetic Code Biochemistry 3107
Gregor Mendel's Legacy: LTU Biochem Home Page, La Trobe U
Evolution Wing: UC Berkeley Museum of Paleontology

GENETIC ENGINEERING, Events & News, Forums, Search
DoWnloads research papers & technologies
• free Registration

Genetic Engineering: Greenpeace
Genetic Engineering News
International Forum for Genetic Engineering bioethical, moral, & spiritual dialogue; paradigms & motives
Students for Alternatives to Genetic Engineering (SAGE)
WWW Virtual Library: Biotechnology Directory

The Arabidopsis cDNA Sequence Analysis Project
Caenorhabditis elegans Genetics and Genomics database, genetics, Genome, tools & vectors
Caltech Genome Research Laboratory human, mouse & microbial
Cancer Genome Anatomy Project (CGAP), cancer cell molecular anatomy
Chicken Genome Mapping ChickGBASE database
Chicken Genome Project
Data mining in yeast genome expression data and functional classes: Alvis Brazma

Designer of Lives: GenomeUse It! basics, Forum, history, Glossary, Human Genome Project, Links, Search Human at Science: Biology: Genetics: Eukaryotic: Animal: Mammal
Drisophila Genome Projects BLAST Searches database
Finding the Genes in Genomic Sequences: Dept Plant Genetics, U Gent, BELGIUM
FlyBase A Database of the Drosophila Genome
FlyBrain An Online Atlas & Database of the Drosophila Nervous System: Arizona
GadFly Genome Annotation Database of Drosophila

GeneCardsUse It! human gene, map, protein & disease: WIS Bioinformatics & Biological Computing: Weizmann

Genemap 99
Genetics Education Center human genetics & genome: U Kansas
The Genome Database
genome gateway Nature Magazine
Genome Research
Genome Sequencing Center, St. Louis C. Elegans
Genome Research journal
Genomics Glossaries & Taxonomies Cambridge Health Institute
Genomics Today

The Human GenomeUse It! data, genetic variation, gene expression, Links, maps, SEarch, sequencing, stories

Human Genome Diversity Project FAQ
The Human Genome Organisation
Human Genome Project Information FAQ, News
IncyteGenomics genome closure, life array chips, proteomics, research, Bioinformatics Glossary
Institute for Genetic Resources (
Microbial Database sequences: microbial genomes & chromosomes & research laboratory Links

Introduction to Bioinformatics and Genomics: Dr. Dick Davis, College of Staten Island Library, City U NY
McGill Drosophila Genome Project McGill U
The Mosquito Genomics WWW Server
Mouse Genome Informatics
National Center for Genome Resources (NCGR) globally centralized organization & analysis

National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) Glossary
Online Research Resources
NCBI Software Dev ToolKit

NCBI Human Genome Resources
New Scientist Search under "Human Genome"
Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) catalog of human genes & genetic disorders : US NIH
ORNL Probes the Human Genome
Parasite Genome UK
Pig Genome Mapping PiGBASE database
Saccharomyces (yeast) Genome Database Stanford U

Use It! TIGR Databases microbes, plants and humans: Institute for Genomic Research

UK Human Genome Mapping Project Resource Centre
Whitehead/MIT Center for Genome Research,   Molecular Pattern Recognition
Y.F.Leung's Functional Genomics bioinformatics, glossaries, mapping, microarray, proteomics...
Gallery of Biomolecule Simulations animations: UC San Diego
Graphics Gallery,
Web Links Molecular Biology images/animations, Robert R. Weaver: McGraw-Hill Higher Education

also see.. Bioinformatics

Biology Lecture Series by Dr. John C. Perez, Natural Toxins Research Center,  Texas A&M
Amino Acid Composition and Protein Sequencing

Genetic Linkage: North Dakota State U
Interpreting Biological Sequences: Gutell Lab, Comparative RNA Web Site
Introduction to Computational Biology Maps, sequences and genomes by Michael S. Waterman
Linkage Analysis, LINKAGE and RH Map Construction a Tutorial for Students by Julia Krushkal
LINKAGE User's Guide a Tutorial for Students by Julia Krushkal: Genetic Linkage Analysis, Rockerfeller U
Mapping Josť R. Valverde
Michael Zuker bioinformatics, nucleic acid and protein sequence analysis algorithms
Molecular Pattern Recognition: Whitehead/MIT Center for Genome Research
Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis by Georg F. Weiller, ( software)
Molecular Systematics and Evolution of Microorganisms downloads, lectures, Links, Glossary: Virtual Institute of Bioinformatics, Ireland

Molecular Toolkit Java 1.0 nucleic acid & protein sequence data analysis & manipulation: Colorado State U, Guide to Sequence Analysis, Links


Artificial chromosome
    º Human artificial chromosome
Leroy Hood invented the automated DNA sequencer
    º Mendel, Gregor (1822-1884) Experiments on Plant Hybridization, laws of dominant & recessive inheritance

Mendelian Genetics 1st & 2nd laws, chi-square, epistasis, Links, modifier genes...
Mendelian Genetics monohybrid & dihybrid cross, sex-lilnked inheritance: The Biology Project
Mendelian Genetics Chapter Directory: MIT's Biology Hypertextbook

also see.. Genomes

DOE Joint Genome Institute - JGI Microbial
Pseudomonas Fluorescens Genome Project
Pseudomonas syringae Genome Project:  

Institute for Genetic Resources (
Microbial Database sequences: microbial genomes & chromosomes & research laboratory Links

Pseudomonas Genome Project - Links

Model Organisms WWW Virtual Library

also see.. C. Elegans, §AGRICULTURE§

Introduction to the Nematoda the roundworms (BaNG), Links ( Research )
Evolution and Development
Filarial Genome Project
Genetics of Caenorhabditis elegans An Introduction
Nematode Expressed Sequence Tags
Phylogenetics and Evolution

Society of Nematologists
Tree of Life: Nematoda Roundworms

American Journal of Human Genetics behavior, biochem, clinical, counseling, population, epidemiology
Annual Review of Genetics
Genes & Development research pubs
Genetics: The Genetics Society of America
genome gateway - news Nature Magazine
Human Molecular Genetics Browse archive, Search articles: Oxford U Press
hum-molgen international communication forum in human molecular genetics,   news,   Human Heredity
Mutagenesis multi-disciplinary research, consequences
Nature Genetics international research emphasisizing human & mammalian
Physiological Genomics forum, reviews, perspectives

Biochemistry of Nucleic Acids: Indiana State U
Nucleic Acid Database (NDB)

Public Perception Issues in Biotechnology: Virginia Tech


RNAi@elegansNet - Databases, Literature Searches.. Links, Search
ACeKit (A C. elegans Survival Kit) - Introductions & Informatics
BioCareer - Biomedical, Biotech, & Pharmaceutical Job
DDD - Drug Discovery Directory
MAD - Microarray Directory
NewsStand@elegansNet - Science and News Links, ,Bio-Informatics Databases/Tools/Services
Search@elegansNet Using Top Search and Clustering Engines

Chime: FREE chemical structure visualization plug-in:   MDL Information Systems, Inc
Crystool 4.1 by Brent W. Segelke, edit a list of reagents to create crystallization screens
FASTLINK free download, genetic linkage analysis: RICE U
Molecular Toolkit Java 1.0 nucleic acid & protein sequence data analysis & manipulation: Colorado State U
National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI) Computational Genomics, NCBI Software Dev ToolKit
PAUP* Phylogenetic Software, inference of evolutionary trees, purchase at
System for Easy Analysis of Lots of Sequences (SEALS) FREE, bioinformatics research:

National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Taxonomy Homepage

Basics, Designer of Lives: Genome Forum, history, Glossary, Human Genome Project, Links, Search

A Beginner's Guide to Genome ScienceUse It! Centre for Integrated Genomics, Canada

Biological Timing Online Science Experiment: Center for Biological Timing, U Virginia
Bio 103 Lecture Notes: U Georgia

Biological Basis of HeredityUse It! Palomar College

Biology 118: Principles of Genetics & Cell Biology I: Duke U
Biology 222 - PRINCIPLES OF GENETICS: Principles of Genetics & Cell Biology I: U Maryland
Clone World ethics, FAQ, Forum, games, Links, Search:
Current Topics in Genome Analysis overview: US NIH
Decisions, Decisions: Cloning grades 5-10, video, viewpoints, web poll
Diving Into the Gene Pool, The Exploratorium

Doc Kaiser's Microbiology - Links, Biology Tutorials for Metabolism and Genetics:
Gary E. Kaiser, Community College of Baltimore County
DNA, DNA Replication, and RNA - DNA, DNA Replication, RNA
Polypeptides, Proteins and Enzymes - Polypeptides and Proteins, Enzymes
Protein Synthesis - Polypeptides and Protein Synthesis, Transcription, Translation

General and Medical Genetics glossary, Hypertext intro & guide
Biomedical Hypertextbooks & Molecular Toolkit: Colorado State U

Genetic Science Learning CenterUse It! U Utah

Genetic Science Learning Center basic genetics, disorders, society, themes: U Utah
Genetics Education Center human genetics & genome: U Kansas

A Hypermedia Glossary of Genetic TermsUse It! by Birgid Schlindwein

Hypertextbooks for Biomedical Sciences Glossary
General & Medical GeneticsUse It!

Learn GeneticsUse It! U Utah
Teacher Resources and Lesson Plans
Tour of the Basics

Lecture Notes General Genetics: Emporia State U
Living Links ape & human social life, ecology, cognition, neurology, molecular genetics: Emory U
MendelWeb intro's to classical genetics, data analysis, plant science, history of science
Molecular Systematics and Evolution of Microorganisms,   Glossary: Natural History Museum, London
Molecular Tools of Medicine Indiana State U

MorganUse It! A Genetics Tutorial:   Rutgers U

Mutant Fruit Flies the Exploratorium

National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Bookshelf: books
Genes and Disease
    º Introduction to Genes and Disease Asking About Life by Allan J. Tobi & Jennie Dusheck
sample chapter) Part II Genetics: The Continuity of Life (pdf)

Online Courses:   International Society for Computational Biology

PLSC 431/631 - Course TopicsUse It! Intermediate Genetics: North Dakota State U

Primer on Molecular Genetics, Glossary by Denise Casey, Oak Ridge National Lab, US DOE
An RNA Structure Primer:
Virtual FlyLab

    º Introduction to genetics
    º Category:DNA
    º Category:Genetic engineering
    º Category:Genetics
Amino acid
Artificial chromosome
    º Bacterial artificial chromosome
    º Human artificial chromosome
    º Yeast artificial chromosome
Artificial selection intentional breeding for certain traits in contrast to natural selection
    º Laboratory usage
    º Human chromosomes
    º Cloning vector
    º Human cloning
    º Molecular cloning
Cofactor (biochemistry) non-protein chemical compound bound to protein; necessary for biological activity
Cosmid type of hybrid plasmidused as a cloning vector & to build genomic libraries
Cytogenetics study of the structure & function of the cell, especially chromosomes
    º Mitochondrial DNA
gDNA Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid
Gene expression
Genetic code
Genetic engineering
Genetic recombination breaking a molecule of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) then joining to a different DNA molecule
Genome entirety of an organism's hereditary information; encoded either in DNA or in RNA (for many types of virus)
    º Human Genome Project
• Genomic Library (see Library - biology)
Library (biology) collection of DNA fragments stored & propagated in a population of micro-organisms through molecular cloning
Messenger RNA
• Nitrogenous base (see Nucleobase)
    º Adenine (DNA and RNA)
    º Cytosine (DNA and RNA)
    º Guanine (DNA and RNA)
    º Thymine (DNA)
    º Uracil (RNA)
Nucleotide molecules when joined become structural units of RNA and DNA; alternatively they may serve as sources of chemical energy in metabolism
Plasmid DNA molecule separate from & replicating independently of chromosomal DNA
Ribosome cell components that make proteins from amino acids
RNA Ribonucleic acid
    º Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) the central component of the ribosome
    º Transfer RNA
Selectable marker gene introduced into a cell conferring a trait suitable for artificial selection
Transduction (genetics) transfer of DNA by a virus between bacteria or to artificially introduce a foreign gene into a host cell's genome via a viral vector
Transfection deliberately introducing nucleic acids into cells, notably for non-viral methods with eukaryotic cells
Transformation (genetics) DNA taken from the environment through the cell wall; natural & artificial; common with bacteria
Translation (genetics) first stage of protein biosynthesis
Vector (molecular biology)

also see.. Tutorials

Cell Division (cytokinesis)
    º Meiosis
    º Mitosis
Cytoplasm semi-fluid within the cell's plasma membrane in which...
    º... organelles (functional structures in eukaryotic cells) are suspended
Gamete sex cell, germ cell or spore

Natural Selection
• Masters
    º Darwin, Charles
    º Fisher, R.A.'s Modern Synthesis
    º Kimura, Motoo's Neutral Theory Of Molecular Evolution & Genetic Drift
    º Lamarck, Jean-Baptiste, Lamarckism
    º Spencer, Herbert Social Darwinism
    º Wallace, Alfred Russel
    º Crick, Francis & Watson, James's discovery of the structure of DNA
• Origin of Species (digital copies)
    º British Library, Writings of Charles Darwin: HTML Editions - 1st (1859), 6th (1872)
    º Project Gutenberg: Plain text Editions - 1st (1859), 6th (1872)
    º U New South Wales, Embryology Download: ( PDF)
Social Effect of Evolutionary Theory
    º Materialism
    º Progress
    º Social Darwinism

• segment of DNA which cells transcribe into RNA and translate into proteins
• groups of genes & the environment determine external hereditary traits or characteristics (phenotype)

• Masters
    º Mendel, Gregor

Molecular Biology

Nucleic Acids
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) & RNA (ribonucleic acid)
    º Nucleobases: Cytosine (C), Guanine (G), Adenine (A), Thymine (T) & in RNA Uracil (U) in place of T
• formed by Nucleotide chains
    º Base Pairs of nucleotides

Polymer, Biopolymer
Self-assembly: Random Coil, Protein Folding



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