to ELA Bottger-Gallegos

José Guadalupe Gallegos
(Photograph courtesy Henry Gallegos & Carlos Romero)
Born: April 13, 1828, in San Jose, San Miguel Co, NM
Died: May 18, 1867 age 39, Colonias, Guadalupe Co, NM
Marriage: Josefa Gutierres Nov 18, 1843 at San Miguel del Bado
Father of Silvano Gallegos & Grandfather of George Gallegos Sr.
José's Parents: José Fernando de Jesus Gallegos & Maria Juliana Padilla
Parents' Marriage: Apr 28 1824, Catholic, Galisteo, Santa Fe, NM
Sep 1851-Sep 1853 San Miguel Co. Sheriff*DesertLawmen
Mounted Militia of NM: May 20 1854 Captain; July 3, 1854 Brigadier General, 2nd brigade, 2nd division
NM Territorial Legislature: 1855-6 & 1858-1861, 5th & 8th-10th Assembly San Miguel Co. representative;
1858-9 8th Assembly House Speaker; 1859-1861 9th & 10th Assembly Council President
Sep 1857? San Miguel Co. Sheriff
1859-1860 one of founding members, Historical Society of NM
Civil War: Governor-appointed Field & Staff Colonel, 3rd Regiment, NM Mounted Volunteers Aug 26, 1861 - Mar 6 1862
Hatch's Ranch Post Commander Nov 22, 1861

Information Following
NM Legislative Service
NM Territorial House Journal-1858
Montezuma Copper Mining Company of Santa Fé New Mexico,
NM Wool Mfg Co. Inc. & NM Railway Company Inc
NM Historical Society: Members & Minutes, 1859-1863
Civil War: Letter of U.S. Army Appointment/Assignment
3rd Regiment New Mexico Mounted Volunteers
Colonel Canby Letter
San Miguel del Bado: 1803 Settlers, 1841 Census;
Other Census Information: 1860, 1870 ( Jose Fernando, Josefa, Ladislao, Anto. José Families ), 1880

Parents' Marriage

Maps of Pecos Valley: Anton Chico & Pecos River Area, Upper Pecos Valley, Hatch's Ranch;

Resources, Notes

expanded from Carlos Romero's @

During José Guadalupe Gallegos' short life of thirty nine years, he succeeded in generating a stellar list of accomplishments. These include prominent participation in the very early Territorial government of New Mexico, advancement from captain to brigadier general during service in the New Mexico Militia to include a skirmish with the Jicarilla and Mescalero Apaches, election to the San Miguel County sheriff's office, Historical Society of New Mexico member, Civil War field and staff colonel commission in the U.S. Army to include command of the Hatch's Ranch military post, and an excellent command of the English language.

1828, April 13 Birth: José Guadalupe Gallegos was born in San José (San Miguel County), New Mexico. He was the son of José Fernando de Jesus Gallegos and Maria Juliana Padilla. He was raised in an area known as the San Miguel del Vado Land Grant (see map). Thirteen of the original fifty-two, or twenty-five percent of the men who applied for the grant in 1794 were genízaros, those Native Americans, captured or sold into slavery, some of whom had complained of poor conditions and were granted lands by the governor for farming, often to provide a buffer of protection for larger towns against enemies. *Genizaros

This vicinity of the Pecos River was a meeting place for trade between the Plains and Pueblo tribes, a passage through the Sangre de Cristo Mountains for the Pueblo Indians of the Rio Grande valley to access the plains for buffalo hunting, as well as passage for the later Spanish explorers, frontier traders, buffalo hunters, indian fighters, the Santa Fe Trail, Civil War armies, and later still for the transcontinental railroad.*Passg

The San Miguel petition presented the partial truth that this was a genízaro settlement in order to provide more robust argument toward attaining the land grant. According to the petition, the site was about 20 miles downriver southeast of Pecos pueblo, where the trail to the plains crossed the river, and where there was sufficient space not only for the petitioners but for the destitute of the province. They described the boundaries: in the north the Río de la Vaca from the place called La Ranchería to El Agua Caliente; in the south El Cañón Blanco; in the east La Cuesta and Los Cerritos de Bernal; and in the west the place commonly called El Gusano (South San Isidro). Following a period of about 20 years of development to meet the grant requirements, individual parcels of land were allotted by don Pedro Bautista Pino in the name of Governor Chacón's verbal order of March 12, 1803. By this time there were 58 heads of family in the plaza, puesto, or población of San Miguel del Vado. To match families to parcels, Pino measured the total distance along the river that was under irrigation with the aid of his assistant José Miguel Tafoya, and divided by the total number of families to obtain the number of suertes or chances, then had them draw lots for the distribution of what he termed as their repartos or shares. *Lots Two days later, he repeated the same procedure at the settlement of San José del Vado, three miles upstream from San Miguel, distributing farm land to the heads of household: forty-five men and two women.

In 1794, there were 165 Pecos Indians and no settlers at El Vado; in 1820 only 58 Pecos, and 735 settlers. As the El Vado populations increased and that of Pecos Pueblo shrunk, the priest moved to El Vado and visited the Pecos less often. In 1801, Father Buenaventura Merino totaled the population of Pecos pueblo at 123, and the settlers downriver at San Miguel del Vado at 182. Hispanos and Indians grew maize, wheat, and a few vegetables in fields irrigated by the Río Pecos, but only enough to subsist, and were characterized as very poor. They ran only a few head of cattle and no sheep or goats because enemies did not allow an increase. He declared there were no industries or commerce, and no bridges. It was not farming that excited the average El Vado man most in the early 1800's, but hunting or trading on the plains. The settlers on the Río Pecos, with or without government sanction, kept on hunting and trading among the Comanches, enjoying generally with the best relations and at peace. In 1811 the settlers finished the chapel of San Miguel del Vado.* SnMglGrnt

1843 Marriage: He married Josefa Gutierres on November 18, 1843. They were married at San Miguel del Bado by the Reverend Father José Francisco Leyba. Note that when Josefa Gutierres applied for a pension as the widow of Colonel José Guadalupe Gallegos on November 7, 1893, she indicated on the deposition that she was not sure they were married on November 18, 1843, since she did not have a copy of the marriage certificate. If they were, indeed, married in 1843, they were both fifteen years old: José Guadalupe Gallegos was fifteen years old in 1843 and he was born in 1828. Josefa Gutierres was also born in 1828. The 1841 census of San Miguel del Bado area shows that they were neighbors. Perhaps that was one of the reasons for the marriage. Both families were wealthy. Therefore, since they were both fifteen years old, since they were neighbors, since the families were both wealthy, and since it was the custom in the Spanish culture to arrange marriages, it is assumed that their marriage was arranged.

1854 Mounted Militia of NM, Captain & Brigadier General: In May of 1854 Acting Governor Messervy called into service for three months a battalion of militia to include 200 volunteers.*MilitiaNM These were stationed in northeastern New Mexico to protect the settlements "from the invasion of the Indians." In addition to the hostilities of the Jicarillas, the Kiowas, Comanches, and Cheyennes were reported to be raiding in San Miguel County where fourteen New Mexicans were killed. At Fort Union Lieutenant Colonel Cooke declared that the attacks by the plains tribes were reasonably to be expected and were in retaliation of serious depredations committed by the Inhabitants of the territory on them: viz, the annual destruction of buffalo within their country. Department of New Mexico commander Brigadier General John Garland attributed the murders in San Miguel County to the unprovoked killing of plains Indians by buffalo hunters the previous winter. "These Indians," he wrote, "as is their custom took their revenge."* Reveng On May 20, 1854, José Guadalupe Gallegos was commissioned a captain with the Mounted Militia of New Mexico. He organized Company "C" at the town of La Cuesta, now known as the town of Villanueva, New Mexico. Under his command were fifty-six men--officers and enlisted men. He had an encounter with the Jicarilla and Mescalero Apaches on July 3, 1854. This fight took place at the Junction of the Rivers Mora and Sapello. When the battle was over, four Apaches had been killed, one lieutenant was killed, and two soldiers had been wounded, all were from a company out of Fort Union. The Apaches also took twenty-one animals (mules and horses). His rank at the time was brigadier general. In 1854, the Mounted Militia of New Mexico had four ranks; namely, second lieutenant, first lieutenant, captain, and brigadier general. He was in command of the Second Brigade and of the Second Division of the militia, formerly under the command of Brigadier General Manuel Herrera.
Additional 1854 Militia source: New Mexico State Archives: Descriptive Record, collection 1973-019; New Mexico Adjutant General Records; series 7; Campaign Records; subseries 7.1; Apache Campaigns; Muster Roll, Jose Guadalupe Gallegos. Citation number: subseries 7.1, folder 7, Box no. 10847, Serial no. 9986; Date(s) of creation: 1854; Access conditions: Access to original territorial records restricted; Use microfilm only (Territorial Archives of New Mexico). Serial number: 9986

1855-1861, Territorial Legislature: A large majority of the members of council and house were naturally Native New Mexicans. About 20 family names include a very large majority of the membership for the whole period, and a few wealthy and influential families in each county controlled the election of representatives and all other matters of the territorial government, with only the slightest interest of the masses. Yet the legislators were as a rule intelligent and patriotic men, rarely accused of corruption and probably superior in respect to representatives of later years. All proceedings were carried out in the Spanish language and also in English translations. José Guadalupe Gallegos represented San Miguel County in the 5th (1855-6), 8th (1858-9), 9th (1859-60), and 10th (1860-1) Assemblies. He served as the House speaker in the 8th Assembly and as Council president in the 9th and 10th Assemblies.* Legislat While in the legislature, he incorporated with like-minded individuals of notoriety, the New Mexico Wool Manufacturing Company, and the New Mexico Railway Company.

1857, Sheriff of San Miguel County: As a result of an election held on the first Monday, September 7, 1857, José Guadalupe Gallegos became sheriff of San Miguel County. He was commissioned sheriff of the county by W.W.H. Davis who was the interim governor of New Mexico. San Miguel County at the time included the present Guadalupe County until 1891 when it was formed from the southern part of San Miguel County. The Sheriff's office was located in Las Vegas, NM. 11 years after Jose Guadalupe's death, railway work crews struggled to build the line between La Junta and Raton, and the first Santa Fe train entered New Mexico December 7, 1878. According to Ralph Twitchell, "without exception, in the days of construction of the Santa Fe railway into the Southwest, there was no town which harbored a more disreputable gang of gamblers, desperadoes, and outlaws than did Las Vegas. They controlled, for a while, the local police officers, and the dance halls, and public resorts were the scenes of many shooting affrays and robberies. In the new town, in the immediate vicinity and in front of the present Castenada hotel, were located some of the most disreputable saloons, dance-halls, and resorts ever in frontier days. The gambling houses never closed and the gambling fraternity did about as they pleased. It finally became necessary to organize a committee of one hundred for the safety of the better classes and visitors to the place. Several desperadoes were summarily dealt with, taken from the jail or from their resorts and hung. Notice was served upon every "undesirable" to leave forthwith and in this manner the town was rid of as desperate a gang of cutthroats and "bad men" as ever congregated in one place in the Southwest."*LasVegas

1859-1860, Historical Society of New Mexico, a Founding Member: On December 15, 1859, a group of prominent men met with the purpose of forming the Historical Society of New Mexico. A committee of five was appointed for the purpose of framing a Constitution and By Laws for the intended society. The committee was made up by Charles P. Clever, United States Marshal in Santa Fe; Facundo Pino; W.J. Howard; José Guadalupe Gallegos and Merrill Ashurst, Clever's sometime law partner. They were to report back with their recommendations a week later.

On December 22 the report was read and adopted as amended. However, after protracted debates and on several articles, a new committee was appointed to reframe the Constitution. The second comittee consisted of Col. John B. Grayson, Major J. L. Donaldson, Hon. K. Benedict, Dr. W. J. Sloan and C. P. Clever Esq. (see members - 2nd committee), Clever being the only member from the previous committee that was retained.*NMHstSocMin

The new committe submitted its report December 26, 1859 endevoring to "form an instrument, as plain, simple and comprehensible as possible, and in which every member of the committee concurs. At the same time, it acknowledges its indebtedness to the labors of the previous Committee, several of whose ideas it has adopted. ...Although the subject of the By Laws was not referred to the Committee, it has drawn up a number, to facilitate the organization of the Society which are herewith submitted and unanimously recommended."*Reframe The report was adopted and the Society now had a Constitution. It remained for the Society to legally incorporate within the state, which it did with the help of José Guadalupe Gallegos.

At the first session of the Territorial Legislature, the capital was fixed at Santa Fe, where it had always been. Congress had appropriated $20,000 in 1850 for the erection of public buildings, with which the foundations of a grand capitol were laid on a lot adjoining the old palacio. A new appropriation of $50,000 was obtained in 1854, and with it the walls of the awkward and ill-planned structure were raised a story and a half but remained incomplete for over 30 years. Meanwhile, the adobe palacio served for all public purposes, frequent efforts to obtain funds for proper repairs being unsuccessful. The importance of preserving the Spanish archives was more or less fully realized, and often urged; but there was no money, and these invaluable records of the past were left for the most part uncared for, to be exposed in later years to still more disastrous neglect. The historical society was organized in 1859-60, but practically nothing was accomplished. *SpArchvs The Society suspended it activities in 1863 due to the Civil War.

1861 (Aug)-1862 (Mar) Civil War, Commissioned Field and Staff Colonel: Governor Henry Connelley issued a bilingual proclamation of August 9, 1861, calling for volunteers as follows. "Citizens of New Mexico, your Territory has been invaded; the integrity of your soil has been attacked, the property of peaceful and industrious citizens has been destroyed or converted to the use of the invaders, and the enemy is already at your doors. You cannot, you must not, hesitate to take up arms in defense of your homes, firesides and families. Your manhood calls upon you to be on the alert and to be vigilant in the protection of the soil of your birth, where repose the sacred remains of your ancestors and which was left by them as a rich heritage to you, if you have the valor to defend it. I feel that I appeal not in vain to those who love the land of their fathers; a land that has been the scene of heroic acts, and deeds of noble daring in wars no more patriotic than that for which preparations are now being made..." Five regiments of volunteers, a regiment of militia, a battalion of militia, and three independent cavalry companies were raised, averaging 97% Hispanics. On August 26, 1861, José Guadalupe Gallegos was commissioned as a Staff & Field Colonel in charge of the Third Regiment (1,000 men), New Mexico Volunteers, in the Army of the United States. He was described by NM Department commander Canby (see Canby letter below) as one among a group of the most efficient volunteer officers. The American Civil War saw a large influx of colonels as the rank was commonly held by those who commanded a regiment. Since most regiments were formations of the separate states and were quickly raised, the colonels in command were known by the title "Colonel of Volunteers," in contrast to Regular Army colonels who held ranks from the "old school" of the professional army before the Civil War.*Colonels On Nov 22, 1861 he took command of the Hatch's Ranch post.

At the end of the Mexican War in 1848, the land north of the Gila River became part of the United States. With the Gadsden Purchase in 1853, the U.S. acquired the remainder of Arizona, south of the Gila River, which became part of New Mexico Territory. Ten years later, Arizona Territory was created out of the western half of New Mexico Territory.* Arizona The Department of New Mexico, which at this time included the Territory of Arizona, had the most officers of Hispanic descent, serving in nineteen units of the Union army. 157 Hispanic officers have been identified, to include Lt. Colonel Diego Archuleta, commander of the 1st New Mexico Volunteer Infantry (NMVI), Colonel Miguel E. Pino, commander the 2nd NMVI, Colonel Jose G. Gallegos, commander of the 3rd NMVI, and Lt. Colonel Francisco Perea, commanding the Perea Militia Battalion.* HispOffcrs

When queried about supporting southern New Mexico against a possible invasion, Simon Cameron, the Secretary of War, replied, “measures have been or will be taken commensurate with its importance.” Not a week later, most of the Regulars were ordered to move east.* RegsOut Many units of the regular army were transferred from the western states to the East, and 1/3 of all officers in the Union army resigned in order to enlist with the Confederacy. Only four companies of dragoons and the Regiment of Mounted Riflemen would be left to represent the regular army in New Mexico. These were augmented by volunteers who provided much of the manpower for the army in the territory. Colonel Canby concluded, soon after taking command of the Department of New Mexico, that Fort Union be designated the general depot for the distribution of all supplies shipped in via the Santa Fe Trail, except medical provisions, to the several posts and commands in the Department. He correctly deduced that the Texas Confederates must attack along one of the rivers, either the Rio Grande, Pecos, or Canadian. At least one company of dragoons, detached from the garrison at Fort Union, was kept posted at Hatch's Ranch to protect that area and scout south and east for Indians and Texans who might threaten the settlements. The troops at Hatch's Ranch were directed, if threatened by a superior force to retreat to Fort Union rather than fight. Hatch's Ranch was considered to be a strategic location in the area because it was close to the Pecos River settlements, near the Fort Smith route to Albuquerque, and in an area through which Comanches and Kiowas often entered the settled regions of New Mexico. The ranch became a military outpost in the department in 1856.* Hatch'sRanch José Guadalupe was made Post Commander at Hatch Ranch on Nov 22, 1861. The unit was under special order 187, Nov 9, 1861 to construct a road between Las Vegas and Fort Union. (see Hatch's Ranch Document below)

The Battle of Valverde occurred the morning of February 21, 1862, thirty miles south of the town of Socorro, New Mexico. Canby and his men met General Sibley's army at the Valverde River crossing where the Confederates were victorious. The Confederates marched up the Rio Grande, capturing towns and supplies as they went: Socorro on February 25 and Belen on March 1, after which the Union troops burned all government property in Albuquerque that could not be hauled northward in wagon trains and evacuated Albuquerque, which was taken on March 2. Believing that Santa Fe could not be successfully defended because it was commanded on all sides by hills, Major Donaldson ordered Union troops to evacuate on March 4. He sent 120 wagons loaded with $250,000 of stores, taken from the commissaries in Albuquerque and Santa Fe, to Fort Union, arriving on March 10, the day that Santa Fe was taken. José Guadalupe Gallegos served a six month enlistment in the Army of the United States from August 26, 1861, until March 6, 1862. The Battle of Glorieta Pass, fought from March 26 to 28, 1862 was the decisive battle of the New Mexico Campaign. Nonprofessional troops, as opposed to regulars or professional army soldiers, were recruited by both sides in the Civil War for a specific purpose, such as Sibley’s campaign, and for a set period of time. The 3rd Regiment, NM Mounted Infantry was mustered out of the Union Army May 31, 1862. The Civil War in New Mexico ended in August, 1862, when the last of the Confederates were routed by the California Column. By law, officers in the army could resign their commissions by simply submitting a letter of resignation to the department commander, who forwarded it to the secretary of war for approval by the president. As soon as a letter of acceptance was returned, the officer was free from his obligations to the Union Army. Enlisted men, however, enjoyed no such privilege. They enlisted for a specified period of time and could not resign.

1867, May 18 Death: in the month following his 39th birthday, José Guadalupe Gallegos was reported drowned in the Pecos River, in the vicinity of Colonias, Guadalupe County, New Mexico following a mysterious buckboard accident. Simon Delgado and Miguel E. Pino also died around this time. Curiously, all three were founding associates of the New Mexico Wool Manufacturing Company. He was buried at Anton Chico, New Mexico on May 24, 1867.

Buckboard Accident & Drowning

Anton Chico's Church & Cemetary

José Guadalupe Gallegos Service in NM Legislature
Report of the secretary of the Territory, 1903-1904, and Legislative manual, 1905 Legislative Assemblies and Conventions 1847-1903
Convened at Santa Fe on the first Monday in December 1855.
...San Miguel County - Antonio Baca y B., Jose Gonzales y Gutierrez, Jose Guadalupe Gallegos.

Convened at Santa Fe on the first Monday in December 1858.
Speaker - Jose G. Gallegos, of San Miguel County
Clerk - Jesus Maria Sena y B.
Sergeant-at-Arms - Lorenzo Martin Members
...San Miguel County - Antonio R. Aragon, Jose G. Gallegos, Manuel de Herrera.
Convened at Santa Fe on the first Monday in December 1859.
President - Jose G. Gallegos, of San Miguel County
Clerk - Jesus Ma. Sena y B.
Sergeant-at-Arms - Felipe Sandoval.
...San Miguel County - Jose G. Gallegos, Francisco Lopez.

Convened at Santa Fe on the first Monday of December 1860.
President - Jose G. Gallegos, of San Miguel.
County Clerk - Richard H. Tompkins.
Sergeant-at-Arms - Jesus Ma. Bazan.
San Miguel County - Jose G. Gallegos, Francisco Lopez.
Convened at Santa Fe on the first Monday in December 1871.
...San Miguel County - Pascual Baca, Ladislas Gallegos, Julian Sisneros, Milnor Rudolph.

...San Miguel County - Roman Lopez, Atanacio Garcia, Ramon Ulibarri, Benito Romero, Antonio J. Gallegos.
from p. 635
History of Arizona and New Mexico, 1530-1888 by Hubert Howe Bancroft, Henry Lebbeus Oak

5th Assembly, 1855-6. S. Miguel, José G. Gallegos
8th Assembly, 1858-9. House: speaker José G. Gallegos; S. Miguel, J.G. Gallegos
9th Assembly, 1859-60. Council: pres. J.G. Gallegos; S. Miguel, J.G. Gallegos
10th Assembly, 1860-1. Council: pres. J.G. Gallegos; members same as '59-60 except S.A. Hubbell in Bernalillo

Note: also see Historical Society Minutes

Members of the 2nd Historical Society Constitution Committee

Benedict, Kirby (1811-~1871) became the Society's third elected president in December 1862 and was a man of exceptional social qualities, full of anecdotes and pleasing reminiscences. He was appointed associate justice of the NM Territorial Supreme Court by US President Franklin Pierce in 1853 and was appointed its chief justice (1858 to 1866) by President James Buchanan. He was the leader of the political party then dominant in territorial affairs and was successful in the political defeat of Colonel Francisco Perea as congressional delegate. Benedict's friends were among the most powerful and best men of the Territory. In Illinois, he had been a lawyer and personal friend of Stephen A. Douglas and Abraham Lincoln. After General Sibley's Confederates left New Mexico and California's General James H. Carleton's forces were in command, Mr. Lincoln was beseiged by prominent officers under Carleton to remove Benedict and appoint a man of his own party. When they charged that Benedict was presiding under the influence of brandy, Lincoln replied, "We have been friends for thirty years. He may imbibe to excess, but Benedict drunk knows more law than all the others on the bench in New Mexico sober. I shall not disturb him." Benedict was opposed to the military domination of General Carleton, his army associates, and friends. Judge Benedict, as well as every other man of prominence in the Territory, gambled at monte, faro, and poker but was particularly severe in his arraignment of those who were guilty violating anti-gambling laws. It was customary for fines to be assessed against professional gamblers, but in one instance he was forced to fine himself and colleagues for such an infraction. He used the New Mexican newspaper to propogandize in favor of his political purposes, making statements such as "Owing to the unsatisfactory management of the military affairs of the Territory by General Carleton, the traveler can not safely pursue his journey owing to attacks from the hostile Apaches." The editor of the Santa Fe Gazette was James L. Collins, who spoke for some of the most influential men of New Mexico and the party opposing Benedict and friends. In these newspapers we find a portrayal of the territorial government immediately following the Civil War. Col. J. Francisco Chaves was a personal friend of Benedict's. Carleton publicized that Chaves pledged to appoint the favorites of Judge Benedict as New Mexico Federal officials, as follows: Don Tomas C. de Baca, for governor; for secretary, Don Miguel E. Pino; for assessor, William H. Manderfield, editor of the New Mexican. M. L. Byers had already been named Santa Fe postmaster and Thomas Means was slated for surveyor-general. The assassination of Lincoln deprived Benedict of his best friend. He made application to President Johnson for reappointment but failed to secure the appointment. This caused him to become irritable and morose. He took up general practice, but his personal habits caused him to be suspended by the supreme court in 1871.*Benedict

Donaldson, James Lowry was elected vice-president of the society in 1860 and president from 1861 to June, 1862 after which he left to join the Confederate forces, participating in Sherman's march to the sea and rising to the rank of brigadier general. He was an 1832 Westpoint graduate, who was brevetted major during the Mexican-American war after the Battle of Buena Vista in northern Mexico, and Union army chief quartermaster in Santa Fe in the Civil War, transferring 120 wagons of war supplies to Fort Union, prior to the capture of Santa Fe.*Donaldson

Grayson, Colonel John Breckenridge was elected as first president of the society and was reelected December, 1860 and resigned May, 1861. He was a member of the second committee that worked to produce the society's constitution and of the Sections on Antiquities and Collections and on Meteorology and Climatology. He donated a melainotype likeness of himself to the Society. Grayson resigned his Union army commission in July, 1861 to join the Confederate States of America, whereby he was commissioned as a Brigadier General and died in Florida while in command of the coastal defenses of Florida and Georgia.*Grayson He was an 1821 graduate of West Point who was brevetted to lt.-colonel during the Mexican-American War after the Battle of Chapultepec.

Sloan, Dr. William J. was corresponding secretary for the Society and a member of the Botony Section until he resigned in September 1860. He was "major surgeon" stationed at Fort Marcy during his tenure with the society. His Civil War service was in the east. He was originally commissioned assistant surgeon in the US army July 12, 1837 and served in the army until his death in 1880.

Other Members of the Historical Society

Ashurst, Merrill was born in Alabama and was educated in the law. He was a state legislative representative for Montgomery County, Alabama 1837-38, and 1840-41.*Ashurst He came to New Mexico in 1851 and began to practice in Santa Fe. He served as attorney general 1852-54 and again 1867-69. He has been described as "a man of unusual ability, a convincing orator, and very successful as a prosecutor." He was an associate in the 1860 Act of incorporation for the New Mexican Railway Company. In 1863 he and Charles P. Clever were associated as a law firm. In the first legislative assembly (1851) he was one of four members of the house from Santa Fe county; and was president of the same chamber in 1857. In December 1859 he was representing Santa Fe in the council, and again a year later as Speaker of the House of Representatives. He was a member of the original committee to frame the Constitution of the NM Historical Society and was a member of its Biography section. He died in 1869.

Collins, James L. (1800-1869) was a member of the Historical Society's Indian Races Section and was one of the signers of its Constitution. He arrived in Santa Fe in 1826 and moved from Santa Fe to Chihuahua, Mexico in 1828. He was a merchant in Chihuahua until the beginning of the Mexican-American War in 1846, then moved back to Santa Fe. He published the Santa Fe Weekly Gazette 1852-1858. He was appointed by Presidents Buchanan, then Lincoln to be NM Superintendent of Indian Affairs. He spoke some Navajo and was acquainted with some of the Navajo chiefs. He provided counsel and guidance to the Union army efforts during the Civil War. He was murdered and robbed of the $100,000 troop payroll, from the vault in Santa Fe of the office of the depository, while acting in his capacity as Receiver of the land office and custodian of the United States funds. The US government sued his bondsmen, Vincent St. Vrain, John S. Watts, William W. Mills of El Paso, TX, William Craig of Colorado and Hamilton G. Fant of Georgetown, Washington D.C. for $38,600 since $65,000 of the stolen money was recovered from the brewery next-door to the depository. A House Committee on the Judiciary a claim for reimbursement by the bondsmen and ruled that Collins "was wickedly and cruelly murdered while bravely attempting to defend the property of the United States against unknown thieves and robbers." Refer to House of Representatives Report No.104, 43rd Congress, 1st Session.*CollinsJL

Hovey, Oliver P.*HoveyOP (~1825-<Aug 9, 1862) was a member of the Statistics Section of the Historical Society and was an associate listed in the 1861 acts of incorporation for the NM Wool Mfg Co, Jan 30, 1861; The Montezuma Copper Mining Company of Santa Fé, New Mexico, Jan 26, 1861; the Union Mining Company of New Mexico, Jan 25, 1862; the Abiquiu Pagosa and Baker City Road Company, Dec 28, 1860; the Rio Arriba Bridge Company, Jan 22, 1861. He was a printer that established the Hovey and Davies publishing company. He printed the Kearny Code for Governor Charles Bent in 1846, but since Bent died before all copies of the code were submitted, he had to take his case to the U.S. Congress before receiving full payment in 1858. He printed the Santa Fe Republican Newspaper in 1847 with editor G.R. Gibson. His wife was Martina Baca with whom he had a son, Juan, born around 1847. He was a NM house member of the 1861 11th Legislative Assembly and a member of the New Mexico Historical Society, in its social statistics section. He died prior to January 1866, when a case was held in the NM Supreme Court on behalf of his creditors. At this time his estate was insolvent and valued at only 30 to 40 cents on the dollar.


Associates: Oliver P. Hovey, Anastacio Sandoval, Hamilton G. Fant, Tomás Cabeza de Baca, Ceran St Vrain, Nicolas Pino, A.P. Wilbar, Francisco Lopez, S.J. Spiegelberg, José Manuel Gallegos, H.B. Sweeny, Mateo Sandoval, Joseph Seligman, Felipe Delgado, Levi Spiegelberg, Francisco Montoya, Richard Jenkins, José Guadalupe Gallegos, Edward Wise, Andrés Sandoval, George C. Miller, Francisco Sandoval, M. Ashurst, Juan María Baca, Gabriel Rivera, William A. Street, José Pablo Gallegos, James Hubbell, Felix Garcia, James L. Cóllins, José Leandro Perea, John S. Watts, Faustin Baca y Ulibarri, Miguel Sena y Romero, and Sidney A. Hubbell.*MntzMinCo

Sec. 2 The said company shall have power in any lawful manner, whether by purchase, lease, donation, or license, to acquire, own, possess, use, and enjoy any real or personal estate in the counties of Santa Ana, Santa Fé, San Miguel, and Rio Arriba, in the said Territory, and on and with the same to carry on and conduct the business of mining for copper, lead, gold, silver, tin, iron, or coal; and such real or personal estate or any part or products of the same, to sell, lease, exchange, or in any other lawful manner to dispose of.

Sec. 3 The capital stock of said company shall consist of the sum of five hundred thousand dollars [$500,000], or five thousand shares of one hundred dollars each; and the said company shall have the right and power to increase the said stock to the gross sum of fifteen hundred thousand dollars [$1,500,000], or fifteen thousand shares of one hundred dollars each.

Sec. 8 That when any stockholder of said company shall fail or refuse to pay any call or assessment required of him in conformity with the by laws rules or regulations of said company it shall be lawful for the said compauy through its officers or agents to sell the stock of such defaulting stockholder or so much thereof as shall be sufficient to make good such defalcation and all expenses; such sale to be made in such manner and after such notice as may be prescribed in such by laws rules or regulations and the secretary of said company shall be authorized to transfer on the books of said company the stock so sold to the purchaser thereof.

Sec. 10 That in case the said company shall not on or before the 31st day of December, A.D. 1862, have duly organized in conformity with the powers granted to it by this act, then it shall be considered to have forfeited each and all of the powers privileges, rights and immunities granted to it by this act.

from Local and special laws of New Mexico: in accordance with an act of the legislature, approved April 3, 1884
by the New Mexico Commission for the Compilation of the Laws


Associates: Ceran St. Vrain, José Guadalupe Gallegos, Oliver P. Hovey, Anastacio Sandoval, Rafael Armijo, José Manuel Gallegos, Hamilton G. Fant, Nazario Gonzales, J. Francisco Chaves (1833-1904), Levi Spiegelberg, A.P. Wilbar, Miguel A. Otero (1829-1882), William W. Griffin, José Leandro Perea, S.J. Spiegelberg, Tomás Cabeza de Baca, Sydney A. Hubbell, Francisco Lopez, William A. Street, Ramon Luna, Miguel E. Pino, Thomas H. Hopkins, Simon Delgado, M. Steck, Vicente Garcia, Teodoro Baca, Vicente Romero, José Jaramillo, Manuel Vigil.
(see NM Wool Mfg Associates below for details)

from Local and special laws of New Mexico: in accordance with an act of the legislature, approved April 3, 1884
by the New Mexico Commission for the Compilation of the Laws
View: Page 806, Page 808,

NM Wool Mfg Value, 1907
from History of New Mexico: its Resources and People Vol.2
by George B. Anderson, Pacific States Publishing Co., 1907 p.1031


Associates: Henry Connelly, Antonio J. Otero, Ambrosio Armijo, José Felipe Chavez, Francisco Chavez, Spruce M. Baird, Francisco Perea, José Leandro Perea, Charles B. Clark, José Guadalupe Gallegos, Stephen Boice, William H. Moore, Ceran St. Vrain, Thomas C. de Baca, Merrill Ashurst, Duff Green, John Titus, David R. Porter, Oliver W. Barney, and Philip L. Fox.

Note: there is no indication as yet as to whether this was just a paper company or had real assets.*NMrailway It is apparent from the Memorial document below that the act of incorporation was an attempt to keep the allocation of lands and construction of the railroad within NM Territory under the jurisdiction of the Territorial government. Section 9 reads... Be it further enacted: That it is hereby made incumbent upon the said company hereby incorporated, to commence actual operations in laying out, locating and grading said road within the limits of the Territory of New Mexico, within five years from and after the passage of this act; and upon their failure to do so, all the rights, privelages and immunities hereby granted to said company are hereby revoked, and this charter to said company is hereby forfeited. Section 10. That all laws or parts of laws in conflict with the provisions of this act are hereby repealed, and this act shall be in force from and after its passage. Approved February 2, 1860. Note also that the incorporation of the Historicial Society follows that of NM Rail and was approved on the same day, Feb 2, 1860.

May 21, 1860 House of Representatives p.879
Bills, on leave, were further introduced as follows, viz:
By Mr. Otero: A bill (H. R. 761) to authorize contracts for carrying the mails and troops and naval and military stores on the New Orleans, Opetousas, and Great Western, the Sabine and Rio Grande, the Southern Pacific and New Mexican railways, and for other purposes; which was read a first and second time, and referred to the select committee on the Pacific railroad, and, together with the memorial of the New Mexican Railway Company, ordered to be printed.

House of Representatives, 36th Congress, 1st Session
May 21, 1860 Doc. No. 85

Read pdf: Memorial of the New Mexican Railway Company in Relation to the Pacific Railroad
To accompany Bill H.R. 761

View: Page 114, Page 116,

from Laws passed by the General Assembly of the Territory of New Mexico
Hovey & Davies, 1860 p.110, 112

Connelly, Henry (1800–1866) Governor of the New Mexico Territory during the American Civil War and General Sibley's New Mexico Campaign. During the Battle of Valverde, he was at Fort Craig, then moved the territorial capital from Santa Fe to Las Vegas, New Mexico prior to the Confederate occupation of Santa Fe. He was a medical doctor, but gave up practice to become a merchant. In 1824, when he traveled the Santa Fe Trail from Independence, Missouri to Santa Fe with other merchants. He moved to Chihuahua, Mexico in 1828 where he married, had three children, and traveled to the US for trade until 1848, after which he made his home in Peralta, about 17 miles south of Albuquerque. He participated in negotiations between governor Manuel Armijo and James W. Magoffin in Santa Fe, prior to Kearny's 1846 bloodless Capture of Santa Fe during the Mexican-American War. In 1849, after the death of his first wife, Connelly married Delores Perea. Perea was the widow of Don Mariano Chaves, a previous governor of New Mexico while under Mexican rule. She was also the mother of Don Mariano's son, José Francisco Chaves, who served three terms in the United States House of Representatives as Delegate from the New Mexico Territory, 1865 to 1871. In December 1861 Governor Connelly's administration was able to spearhead the repeal of the Slave Act of 1859. During the Civil War he was forced to abandon Santa Fe to the incoming Texas Confederate forces under General Henry H. Sibley in March 1862. Connelly was ill during a large part of his administration, and was absent from office due to illness for about a half year between the fall 1862 and the spring of 1863, during which Secretary William F.M. Arny served as Acting Governor. He died of an opium overdose on Aug 12, 1866 in Santa Fe.*ConnellyH

Baird, Spruce M. a judge sent by Texas during the U.S. provisional government of New Mexico to organize their claimed land east of the Rio Grande as the Santa Fe county of Texas. He was appointed by President Millard Fillmore as agent of the Indians in the New Mexico Territory and confirmed by the U.S. Senate on Jan 22, 1852.*BairdSM He was an associate listed in the original Act to incorporate the Historical Society of New Mexico on Feb 2, 1860.

Fox, Philip L.*FoxPhil

Green, Duff (1791-1875) was a teacher, politician, military leader, printer, journalist, diplomat and author. He served under General Harrison in the War of 1812 and led the Missouri Brigade in the Indian Campaign, earning the rank brigadier general. Thereafter he was known by many as General Duff Green. He owned and edited the St Louis Enquirer for two years. Then in 1825 he owned and edited Washington D.C.'s The United States Telegraph which helped Andrew Jackson defeat John Quincy Adams in the presedential election of 1828. Green became a member of Jackson's kitchen cabinet on which Jackson depended heavily following the Petticoat affair. After Calhoun and Jackson fell out of favor with one another, Jackson decided to run with Martin Van Buren as Vice President and Duff's newspaper attacked the administration and sided with Calhoun in the Nullification Crisis. Calhoun had served as Vice President under the previous term with Adams as well as with Jackson. Duff's daughter Margaret Maria was the mother of Calhoun's grandson, also named John Caldwell Calhoun. In 1849 after the Mexican War, President Taylor sent Green to Mexico for negotiation of moneys the US had agreed to pay under the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, saving much by arranging for payment in exchange instead of in specie. Subsequently Green was engaged in railway building. Duff was attracted to Dalton, Georgia in 1851 to profit from construction of the East Tennessee and Virginia Railroad from Knoxville, Tennessee to connect with the Western and Atlantic Railroad by making strategic land purchases. As his wealth grew, he donated land for many public projects in Dalton. During the Civil War Green organized three iron manufacturing plants for production of iron, nails, horseshoes, and rails in support of the Confederacy. He and his son Ben also established the Dalton Arms Company in 1862. After the war he was pardoned by President Andrew Johnson for his support of the Confederacy and paid a $20,000 fine. He was one of the founding members of The Pennsylvania Fiscal Agency, incorporated Nov 1, 1859 in Pennsylvania. At that time Duff Green gained 42,000 shares but paid with a bad check the 5% payment on only 5,000 shares. On March 26, 1864 Thomas C. Durant, vice president of the Union Pacific Railroad Company purchased the corporation as a front construction company, whereby the directors and principal stock holders of the Union Pacific retained all construction profits. They then used these funds to purchase Union Pacific stock at par value and resell it on the open market for even greater profits. Durant changed the company name to the Credit Mobilier of America. The scandal involving the sale of discounted Credit Mobilier stock to Congressional members voting for payment of exorbitant transcontinental railroad construction costs was uncovered during the Grant administration.*GreenDuff General Duff Green died in 1875.


Chaves, José Francisco (1833-1904) attended St. Louis University and studied medicine at the New York College of Physicians and Surgeons. The Chaves family was one the wealthiest and most influential in New Mexico. At age twenty he took managed the family ranch, which included driving large flocks of sheep to California. His father Don Mariano Chaves was one time governor under Mexican rule. His mother was the daughter of Don Pedro Perea of Bernalillo, and later married Dr. Henry Connelly, governor during the Civil War. Connelly gave the commission of major to Chaves when the 1st regiment NM Volunteers formed. After Ceran St. Vrain resigned his commission with the 1st, Kit Carson was appointed colonel and Chaves was promoted to lt-colonel. He was a Union Army major in the 1st NM Infantry Regiment and fought in the Battle of Valverde in 1862, after which he was promoted to lt-colonel. He was NM Territorial Council president for 8 sessions and elected to the US House of Representatives in 1865. He also began began studying law in 1865 and was later admitted to the bar. In 1867 Chaves contested the election of C.P. Clever as U.S. Delegate to Congress. The election was found fraudulent by the House Committee on Elections and Chaves was seated. In total he served in the 39th, 40th and 41st Congress. He was defeated in his effort campaign for a fourth term. Chaves served as district attorney (2nd judicial district) 1875-1877 and New Mexico Superintendent of Public Instruction 1903-1904. He was appointed New Mexico State Historian in 1903, but assassinated 1904 prior to taking that office.*JFChaves

Fant, Hamilton G. (the following information is tentative) married Josephine Helen Johnson May 16, 1853 in Baltimore. The Cole County Dragoons were organized in May, 1846, with fifty-seven men. This company left en route for Fort Kearney June 3 to serve under Col. Kearney. On being mustered in, the geographical title was merged in that of Company F, First Missouri Mounted Mexican Volunteers, the roster of which includes privates Hamilton G. Fant and Joseph L. Fant. Hamilton G. Faunt (c1819-1893) was a long time Washington banker and broker. Following the Civil War, the Federal Government revoked the charters of all banks whose loyalty to the Union might be suspect. Richmond was without a bank until several citizens met with northern banker Hamilton G. Fant and associates, who agreed to establish a bank under Federal charter. Financial leaders, who wanted to pull Richmond through the impending and difficult years of Reconstruction, founded the First National Bank in April 1865. On Apr 26, 1876 Hamilton G. Fant testified that the firm of Fant, Washington & Co. were bankers in Washington and financial agents of George A. Cowles & Co... Fant may also have been associated with Fant of Sweeny, Rittenhouse, Fant & Co. and with the Bank of Commerce, Georgetown, D.C., established December 31, 1857. (see Fant Leads)

Gallegos, José Manuel (1815-1875) studied theology in Durango, Mexico, where he was ordained a Roman Catholic priest in 1840. From 1843-1846 he served on the Legislative Assembly of the Department of Nuevo México under rule of Mexico. Following the Mexican-American War and annexation by the US, he was elected to the 1st Territorial council of New Mexico in 1851. In 1853 he defeated James Carr Lane and the "American Party" to win the Democratic nomination and general election as Delegate to the US Congress. In the process he had the support and guidance of later Governor, David Merriwether and of the Penitentes. He thus became the first New Mexican Delegate to the US Congress, but was incapable of speaking English. Gallegos also won the election to a second term, but was denied his seat due to a speech by Miguel A. Otero on the House floor. There Otero contested the election, claiming that Gallegos' slim margin was due to illegal votes of Mexican citizens, and declaring only Otero was capable of addressing the House "in the language of its laws and its constitution." In 1860 Gallegos was elected as Santa Fe representative in the Territorial House and was House Speaker 1860-1862. When when the Confederates from Texas captured Santa Fe, he provided information and assistance to Union forces and was taken prisoner. Gallegos served as territorial treasurer 1865-1866 and as the 1868 superintendent of Indian affairs. He was elected as a Delegate to the 42nd U.S. Congress House of Representatives but was unsuccessful in his 1872 bid for reelection. He died in Santa Fe.*JMGallegos

Hovey, Oliver P.

Otero, Miguel Antonio (1829-1882) attended St. Louis University, Missouri and graduated from Pingree College in Fishkill, NY, where he taught school while studying law. In 1851 he continued his law studies in Missouri and was admitted to the bar. In 1852 he was private secretary to NM governor William C. Lane, and was elected to the 2nd NM Territorial Legislative Assembly. He was appointed Territorial attorney general in 1854 and served until 1856 when he contested the election of José Manuel Gallegos and was seated as the U.S. House of Representatives NM Delegate and was reelected to total of three Congressional sessions with the support of Jean Baptiste Lamy, Bishop of NM. Otero devoted much of his congressional efforts to the construction of the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe portion of the transcontinental railroad through NM. In 1861 his appointment to NM Territorial secretary was rejected by the US Senate, in part for his pro-confederate tendencies. Following his political career he was successful in business endeavors of merchandizing, banking, and farming. He was one of the founders and later president of the San Miguel National Bank in Las Vegas, NM until his death. His parents, Don Vicente Otero, a judge and mayor in Valencia County under the Spanish and Mexican governments, and Doña Gertrudis Aragón de Otero, were both natives of Spain who immigrated to the US as colonists. President McKinley appointed his son, Miguel A. Otero, Jr., NM Territorial governor 1897-1906.*MAOtero

Sandoval, Anastacio (~1806-) was Santa Fe County probate judge 1858-1863 and state Treasurer 1863-1866, auditor 1867 and 1869. In 1862-3 he represented the county of Santa Fe as a member of the 13th & 14th NM Territorial Assembly Council 1862-1863, and president of the 17th Council in 1867. He was a member of the 18th Council and 20th-23rd House 1881-1885. He was adjudant general in 1871.*ASandoval On Feb 20, 1864 he testified with Tomas C. de Baca in favor of Jose Leandro Perea and the Town of Angostura before the Surveyor General reference the Angostura Land Grant. He testified "My name is Anastacio Sandoval; my age is 58 years; my occupation is farmer and merchant; and my residence is here, in Santa Fé. ...I know the town named [Angostura], and it is situated in the county of Santa Ana, in this Territory, on the left bank of the Rio Grande, at a place where the river runs westerly. The town, as such, was in existence when the American troops entered and took possession of New Mexico, in the year 1846, and still exists." When asked if he had any interest in the claim, he answered "I know of none that I have."*Angostura

St. Vrain, Ceran (1802-1870) first arrived in Taos 1825. He was the son of Jacques Marcellin Ceran de Hault de Lassus St. Vrain, (1770-1818, the third son of Pierre de Luziere) an officer in the French navy and commander of the King's galley La Flecha - the Arrow - and captain of militia. Ceran was educated by tutors in a private school near St Louis. His mother was Marie Felecite Chauvet Dubreuil of St. Louis. A brother was Felix St. Vrain, a US Indian agent killed by the Saukees in 1832. He was a major fur trader near Taos on the Santa Fe Trail, where in partnership with William Bent 1831-47 established St. Vrain & Company and built, from adobe, the Bent's Fort trading post in southeastern Colorado, the only privately owned fortification in the west. He also had businesses and a home in Taos. He had become a Mexican citizen and (1844) with Cornelio Vigil received a 4,000,000 acre land grant (later confirmed by the U.S. government) on the northeastern frontier. In the 1847 Taos Revolt, he organized his "Emergency Brigade" which cut off rebel forces' attempting to escape federal troops' cannon fire and frontal assault during the Siege of Pueblo de Taos. During this battle St. Vrain's life was saved by Manuel Chaves. In September, 1849 he was a delegate from Taos County to the Convention of the Territory of New Mexico. He was lt-colonel in 1854-55 battling the Utes and Apaches. He became a Mason at Santa Fe sometime between 1857 and 1864. In 1855 St. Vrain settled in Mora and built a flour mill from which he supplied flour to Fort Union and Fort Garland in Colorado. In 1861 he was appointed colonel of the 1st New Mexico cavalry when it was organized, but resigned on acoount of age and was succeeded by Kit Carson. He died Oct. 28, 1870 (see Dict. of Am. Biog. by Stella Drumm)

Letter Announcing José G. Gallegos Appointment/Assignment, Lt. Anderson to Col. Chapman

from When the Texans Came: Missing Records from the Civil War in the Southwest by John Philip Wilson

Head Quarters Dept. of New Mexico
Santa Fe N.M. Aug. 13, 1861

I am instructed to inform you that the Governor has appointed José Guadalupe Gallegos of San Miguel County, Colonel, José Maria Chaves of Abiquiu Lieut. Colonel, Manuel Baca of Socorro and Joseph Cumming of Santa Fe, Majors of the regiment of New Mexican Mounted Volunteers.

It is expected that four of these companies will be presented at Fort Union and the others at Albuquerque and this place. The time of service of the regiment will be six months. One of the majors (Cumming) will be mustered into service as soon as two squadrons are organized, and the Colonel and second major when the organization of the regiment is completed. The mounted companies that have already been mustered in will be incorporated in the regiment if the men consent to extend their term of service. Major Baca will probably be mustered in at Albuquerque and notice will be given you when the Colonel will be mustered in.

It is the intention of the Colonel Commanding that two of these companies under the command of a field officer should be employed in the country east of Hatches Ranch with their depot in the neighborhood of the place, that it should draw its supplies from Fort Union in the manner that has heretofore obtained with the detachments operating in that neighborhood.

As soon as you can spare a volunteer force for that purpose you will reestablish the system that has just been suspended, instructing the Commanding Officer to keep his scouts constantly in the field and to extend their operations to the Canadian and Red River on the East and down the Pecos far enough to give timely warning of the approach of troops from either quarter. Instruct him also to endeavor to establish friendly relations with the Comanches and induce them to bring in information of any movements on the plains.

The scouts and spies from Fort Union should be kept constantly in the field watching every route by which the Territory can be invaded, or your post threatened.

I enclose communications for the Commanding Officer at Forts Wise and Learned which the Colonel Commanding desires may be forwarded by the express to Fort Wise.

Very respectfully, Sir,
Your obdt. serv't
A.L. Anderson
2nd Lieut. 5 Inf.
A.A.A. Genl

To Col. Wm Chapman 2nd Inf.
Comdg. Fort Union N.M.

3rd Regiment New Mexico Mounted Volunteers

from When the Texans Came: Missing Records from the Civil War in the Southwest by John Philip Wilson

Organized at Fort Union and Albuquerque, August 30 to October 10, 1861, until May 31, 1862.

Colonel: José Guadalupe Gallegos
Lt. Col.: José María Valdez
Major: Luis Baca, Faustino Baca y Ulibarri

Regimental Staff:
Adjutant: John W. Staton, (later) William McLaughlin
Chaplain: (blank)
Quarter Master:(blank)
Quartermaster Sgt: Manuel Baca (H), Francis Moore (A)
Commissary Sgt.: Valentine Basquez
Medical: Surgeon:(blank) Asst. Surgeon:(blank)
Hospital Steward: Gottfried Gauss
Sgt. Major: William McLaughlin (later Adjutant), Christian Wishler
Principal Musician:(blank)

Company A: Captain William Mortimore, (later Manuel Ortiz was promoted to captain after Mortimore was wounded at Valverde), 1st Lt. Telesforo Salazar, 2nd Lt. John Dalton, Lt. Juan José Herrera

Company B: Captain Ricardo Branch, 2nd Lt. Manuel S. Mondragon, 2nd Lt. Pedro Monquillo

Company C: Captain Pedro Sánchez, 1st Lt. Inocencio Martínez, 1st Lt. William B. Russell, 2nd Lt. Leodsio Lucero

Company D: Captain Severiana Martínez, 1st Lt. Juaquin Trujillo, 2nd Lt. Hurbano Lucero

Company E: Captain José Esquibel, 2nd Lt. Francisco Ulibarri

Company F: Captain John Brosee, 1st Lt. Sacramento Montoya

Company G: Captain Juan Sarracino, 1st Lt. Alfredo Branch (G), 1st Lt. Juan Torres, 2nd Lt. Francisco Pena

Company H: Captain Pablo S. Martínez, 1st Lt. Miguel Rivera, Lt. Francisco Griego, 2nd Lt. Ignacio Sena

Company K: Captain Tomas Valencia, 1st Lt. Vicente Trujillo, 2nd Lt. Lorenzo Montoya

Company L: Captain Santiago Gonzales, 1st Lt. Charles LaRouge, 1st Lt. Pedro Sánchez, Lt. Santiago Garcia

(Approximately 1,000 men; organized at Fort Union August 30 to Sept 10 1861; discharged May 31 1862; there was no Company I; unlisted company officers: 1st Lt. John Carmedy (or Carmody) – he transferred to the 4th Regiment, 2nd Lt. José Cordova (I), 1st. Lt. Jesús Luna, 2nd Lt. Francisco Salazar)

The War of the Rebellion Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies

Series I, Vol. 4, Operations in Texas, New Mexico, Arizona... pg. 85

Santa Fé, N. Mex., January 15 (?), 1862.
Col. G. R. PAUL, Fort Union, N. Mex.:

COLONEL: Your note of the 12th was received yesterday. The question you ask presents some difficulty, which I cannot decide at present. I had determined some time ago that, in consequence of the scarcity of officers in the department, I should not consent that any officers of the Army should be taken from their appropriate duties to accept any appointments in the volunteers, and in refusing the action taken in Colonel Robert's case and your own, I urge as a reason for refusing it that, although it would add to your duties, it would remove you from those that you were then exercising. The reason cannot be urged in reference to any other officer at present.

Besides this, the prejudice of the Mexican population towards the Americans is so great that if the field officers are taken altogether from the latter class, it is to be apprehended that it will delay, if it does not defeat, the organization of these regiments.

This is not, perhaps, a good military reason, but it is a necessity, from the character of the people we have to deal with.

I have also instructed two or three of the most efficient volunteer officers now in the service that, if they would induce the men of their regiments to enter the service for three years, I would recommend them for commissions as field officers. Colonel [José G.] Gallegos and Lieutenant-Colonel [José Maria] Valdez are among them, and until I can learn what these men are going to do, I could give no definite answer to your question, even if there were no other obstacles to a favorable answer.

Very respectfully, &c.,

Colonel, Nineteenth Infantry, Commanding Department [of New Mexico].

Map of Hatch's Ranch, 1850-1865

Two views of Hatch's Ranch Document

Report for Nov 1861, Received: July 5, 1862

1st half Image
Jose G. Gallegos, Colonel 3rd N.M.M.Voltrs Commanding Post since November 22

2nd half Image
Nature of Order No. Date Whence Issued When Received Purport
Genral Order 58 Nov 16, 1861 HQ Dept NM Nov 22, 61 Dividing New Mexico into Military Districts
Genral Order 59 Nov 16, 1861 HQ Dept NM Nov 22, 61 Proceedings of a military commission xxx at Fort Craig
Special Order 187 Nov 9, 1861 HQ Dept NM Nov 20, 61 Directing 2nd Lt John Dalton xxx to open a road from Las Vegas to Fort Union
Special Order 199 Nov 20, 1861 HQ Dept NM Nov 26, 61 Sergeant A. F. Peak 3rd Rgt N.M. Mtia Voltrs. to proceed and take post at Hatch's Ranch N.M.

1803 Settlers at San José del Bado
No. Name No. of varas
15. Gallegos, José Antonio 60
16. Gallegos, Toribio 125

from: The Villanueva State Park History of Title and History of the San Miguel del Bado Land Grant
Malcolm Ebright, President Center for Land Grant Studies

1841 Census of San Miguel del Bado
Second District of El Bado, 1841

Source: Mexican Archives of New Mexico, Roll 41, frames 1257-1264
Numbers have been added to index Surnames
(Frame 1261, Column 1) Item 178

Name, Age in Yrs

Fernando Gallego, 34
Ma. Julian Padilla, 28
Gualupe, 12
Alta Gracia, 9
Estefana, 7
Anto. José, 2
Migl., 1

from: The Villanueva State Park History of Title and History of the San Miguel del Bado Land Grant
Malcolm Ebright, President Center for Land Grant Studies

United States Census, 1860 for José Guadalupe Gallegos

Name: José Guadalupe Gallegos
Residence: San Miguel, New Mexico
Ward: The Town Of Anton Chico
Age: 32 years
Estimated Birth Year: 1828
Birthplace: New Mexico
Gender: Male
Page: 110
Family Number: 1137
Film Number: 803713
DGS Number: 4235197
Image Number: 00018
NARA Number: M653


1860 Federal Census San Miguel County, New Mexico Territory
Note: m s r column headings indicate Married this year; in School; can't Read

Year: 1860 Territory: New Mexico County: San Miguel
Post Office: Tecolote Sheet No: 110 Reel No: M653-714
Division: Anton Chico Page No: 14

Add'l columns for José Guadalupe: occupation-merchant; Real-1200; Person-4000
Ladislado & Barnabe both marked X under S (in school) for the M,S,R,Deaf&Dumb Columns

LINE Dwell Famil Lastname Firstname Age Sex BirthPlace
1 1137 1135 Gallegos José Guadalupe 32 M New Mexico
2 1137 1135 Gallegos Maria Josefa 31 F New Mexico
3 1137 1135 Gallegos Ladislado 14 M New Mexico
4 1137 1135 Gallegos Bernabe 11 M New Mexico
5 1137 1135 Gallegos Maria Viviana 5 F New Mexico
6 1137 1135 Gallegos Juan de Dios 8 M New Mexico

from USGenWeb Archives

1870 Colonias de San José Census - José Fernando Gallegos

Page 3 Schedule 1. - Inhabitants of the Township of Colonias de San José, in the County of San Miguel, Territory of New Mexico, enumerated by me on the 8th day of August, 1870

Dwelling & Family No. 14

Name: J Fernando Gallegos
Estimated Birth Year: 1806
Gender: Male
Age in 1870: 64y
Color: White
Birthplace: NM
Home in 1870: NM
Value of Real Estate: 1,000
Value of Personal Estate: 2,647

Name Age Gender Occupation Birthplace
J Fernando Gallegos 64y M Farmer New Mexico
Altagracia Gallegos 32y F Housekeeper New Mexico
Somasa Rivera 6y F   New Mexico
Josefa Rivera 3y F   New Mexico
José Gallegos 14y M Domestic servant New Mexico
Eulojia Gallegos 16y F Seamstress New Mexico


1870 Colonias de San Jose Census
Families of Josefa, Ladislao & Antonio Jose


Page 21 Schedule 1. - Inhabitants of the Town of Colonias de San Jose, in the County of San Miguel, Territory of New Mexico, enumerated by me on the 8th day of August, 1870
Post Office: Las Vegas, N.M. (signed) Demetrio Perez, Ass't Marshall


Dwelling Name Age Gender Occupation Real Estate Value Personal Estate Value Birthplace
11 Gutierrez, Josefa 37 F Keeping House 1000 1000 New Mexico
  Gallegos, Biviana 14 F Seamstress     New Mexico
  Gallegos, Conrada 10 F At Home     New Mexico
  Gallegos, Silviano 12 M At Home     New Mexico
  Gallegos, Guadalupe 3 F       New Mexico
12 Gallegos, Ladislao 23 M Farmer 500 800 New Mexico
  Gallegos, Eufemia 18 F House Keeper     New Mexico
  Gallegos, Esmerejilda 14 F At Home     New Mexico
  Gallegos, Luz 3 F       New Mexico
13 Gallegos, Anto. José 31 M Farmer 2,500 11,855 New Mexico
  Gallegos, Rosario 22 F House Keeper     New Mexico
  Gallegos, Tomas 13 M At Home     New Mexico
  Gallegos, Crecencio 11 M At Home     New Mexico
  Gallegos, Geronimo 5 M       New Mexico


Silvano Gallegos, father of George Gallegos Sr.

1880 United States Census: Household
Name Relation Marital
Gender Race Age Birthplace Occupation Father's
Silvano GALLEGOS Self S Male W 20 NM Farmer NM NM
Josefa GALLEGOS Mother W Female W 50 NM House Keeping NM NM
Conrada GALLEGOS Sister S Female W 17 NM   NM NM
Source Information:
Census Place Precinct 19, Las Colonias, San Miguel, New Mexico
Family History Library Film 1254803
NA Film Number T9-0803
Page Number 257D

from New Mexico Marriages, 1751-1918 for José Fernando Gallego @

Groom's Name: José Fernando Gallego
Bride's Name: Maria Juliana Padia
Marriage Date: 28 Apr 1824
Marriage Place: Catholic, Galisteo, Santa Fe, New Mexico
Indexing Project (Batch) Number: M51262-1
System Origin: New Mexico-ODM
Source Film Number: 16775

Map of Pecos Area, including Anton Chico

from Abercrombies Store in Anton Chico, History Northern New Mexico by Ben Boothe Sr.

Map of Pecos Pueblo, San José del Vado & San Miguel del Vado

from Kiva, Cross and Crown the Pecos Indians and New Mexico by John L. Kessel
@ The National Park Service: Discovery History

Map of San Miguel del Vado Vicinity

Map of San Miguel del Vado Land Grant, 1894

San Miguel del Vado Grant, 315,300 acres
based on John Shaw Survey of 1879

from The Villanueva State Park History of Title and History
of the San Miguel del Bado Land Grant
by Malcolm Ebright
and the New Mexico Office of the State Historian

SW Civil War Defense System
from Fort Union and the Frontier Army in the Southwest:
A Historic Resource Study Fort Union National Monument Fort Union, New Mexico
by Leo E. Oliva
Source: National Park Service, 1993

Mexican-American War

from Guns Along the Rio Grande Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma
U.S. Army Center Of Military History

Map of Coronado Expedition

Santa Fe Trail

Map of NM Counties

Note: LA = Los Alamos


Chiricahua National Monument Faraway Ranch Special History Study by Lysa Wegman-French from the National Parks Service

History of Alabama and Dictionary of Alabama Biography, Vol.2, by Thomas McAdory Owen, Marie Bankhead Owen

1837-8 Samuel C. Oliver; Alfred V. Scott; Merrill Ashurst.
1838-9 Henry W. Hilliard; George D. Shortridge; William O. Baldwin.
1839-40 Joseph J. Hutchinson; William O. Baldwin.
1840-1 Joseph J. Hutchinson; Merrill Ashurst.
1841 (called) Joseph J. Hutchinson; Merrill Ashurst.
1841-2 Joseph J. Hutchinson; Robert J. Ware.

Journal of the executive proceedings of the Senate of the United States, Vol.8, United States. Congress. Senate, 1887

THURSDAY January 22 1852

The following message was received from the President of the United States, Mr. Fillmore, by his secretary:

To the Senate of the United States:
I nominate Spruce M. Baird, of New Mexico, to be agent for the Indians in that Territory, to correct an error in a former nomination, in which his name was erroneously given as Spence M. Baird
MILLARD FILLMORE Washington, January 21st, 1852

The message was read. On motion by Mr Atchison, The Senate by unanimous consent, proceeded to consider the said nomination; and Resolved That the Senate advise and consent to the appointment of Spruce M. Baird, of New Mexico, to be agent for the Indians in that Territory, in place of R.H. Weightman, resigned, agreeably to the nomination.

NM Office of the State Historian: Connelly, Henry 1861--1866

With the end of the Confederate threat, Connelly turned his attention to the Indians, taking an extremely harsh attitude to the Native Americans. He offered them the choice of life on the reservation or death, and followed a systematic program of starvation. Many of the Navajo, Gila Apache, and Mescalero Apache sent to the reservation at Bosque Redondo died during the bad harvest year of 1865.

Connelly was ill during a good part of his governorship, and from the fall of 1862 until May 1863 he left the territory in an attempt to recuperate. In his absence, Territorial Secretary William F.M. Arny served as Acting Governor. Connelly finally retired as chief executive on July 16, 1866. He died on August 12 of that year at Santa Fe of an opium overdose, and was buried in the San Rosario Cemetery in Santa Fe.

Congressional edition by United States. Congress, U.S. G.P.O., 1860 Index to the Miscellaneous Documents of the Senate of the Unites States for the 1st Session of the 36th Congress; also of the Special Session in One Volume

Mis. Doc. No. 45.
Copies of memorials and resolutions of the legislative assembly of that
Territory in relation to the payment of certain militiamen and vol-
unteers called into service against the Indians in said Territory.

March 28, 1860-Read and ordered to be printed.
Secretary's Office Territory of New Mexico.
Santa Fe February 13, 1860.

Sir: In compliance with a duty imposed on me, I have the honor to forward you, under joint cover, certain memorials and joint resolutions of the legislative assembly of this Territory, to wit:
1st. Memorial for payment of certain militiamen, called into service against the Apache Indians by Acting Governor William S. Messervey, anno Domini 1854, passed 1857-58.
2d. Memorial for the payment of volunteers under Major Ramon Luna, organized under the orders No. 22, Colonel E.W.B. Newby's 1850-51, and passed 1857-58.
3d. Preamble and joint resolutions, asking for the payment of militiamen and volunteers aforesaid, passed 1858-59.
4th Memorial asking for the payment of militiamen and volunteers aforesaid, passed 1859-60.
Very respectfully your obedient servant,
Secretary of Territory of New Mexico
[To:] Hon. President of the Senate,
Congress of the United States.

MEMORIAL of the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of New Mexico.
To the honorable Senate and House of Representatives in Congress assembled:

Your memorialists, the council and house of representatives of the legislative assembly of the Territory of New Mexico, would respectfully represent to your honorable bodies that, in the year A.D. 1854, the honorable William S. Messervey, acting governor of this Territory, was urged and compelled, by the continual hostilities of the wild Apache Indians, then at war with the United States within this Territory, to call into actual service in the field, (for six months, unless sooner discharged,) a portion of the militia of Rio Arriba county, to be organized in four companies, as per officers commissioned, and assigned for their respective companies by the said acting Governor, William S. Messervey; and that said companies being drafted and organized, composed some fifty commissioned, non-commissioned officers, buglers, and blacksmiths and two hundred privates of the first brigade second division of Rio Arriba county, and nearly an equal number of the second brigade, second division, of San Miguel county, as appears by the regular muster rolls of the two brigades, now on file in the honorable secretary's office of this Territory, who were kept in the said service under arms, and subject to military orders from the date of entering the service to the date of final disbandment, the entire term of enrollment, six months, and three months or more of which term of service they were engaged in actual service in the field against the enemy, in injury to their peculiar agricultural labors, as said service was rendered between the months of May and November of said year; therefore, all those thus engaged, having to abandon their proper agricultural pursuits, from which they would have received and secured the necessary support for themselves and families for that year, the season above referred to being the most important for the attention and cultivation of their crops, the result was, that they lost entirely the products arising therefrom, and their families were reduced to the greatest possible indigence. These sacrifices being made with a spirit of patriotism and free will, for the defense of their country and the protection of their families and herds, as well as a prompt desire to comply with the laws and orders of the executive department of this Territory and their superior officers, they arming equipping themselves, at their own responsibility, with everything requisite for mounted military service and duty in the field, at great personal sacrifices. Your memorialists would further represent to your honorable bodies that, at the time the memorials were heretofore passed by the Legislative Assembly of this Territory for an appropriation for the payment of these militiamen, there had not then been made a full and correct return of the men who rendered service, as there is at the executive department of this Territory at present, there being then only an incorrect list on file in the secretary's office of this Territory, of the Rio Arriba county brigade, (and none whatever from the brigade in San Miguel county,) of those who first took the field against the Indians, as will appear from accompanying affidavits, herewith enclosed, of the commanding general, and each captain of the four companies of the first brigade, so that then a correct estimate could not have been made for the amount required for the pay and emoluments of the said militia.

Therefore, your memorialists pray that the last rolls (in English) be approved by your honorable bodies, excepting that six months service be allowed in place of three, as appears on the rolls of the first brigade, knowing, as we do, of the justice of the same; and that the long delay in making up the proper returns to our executive department, from each brigade, was owing to the officers not having furnished with the proper forms for so to do, and they not knowing the necessity thereof.

And therefore your memorialists beseech your honorable bodies that, in addition to the appropriation heretofore made by last session of Congress of $25,000, for actual necessary expenses of the said militia, that an early appropriation of at least $140,000 be made for the pay proper, commutation, and emoluments for the services rendered by the said militia, from the counties referred to in this memorial; and that they also be allowed the benefits of the donation acts of Congress for bounty land, &c, believing, as we do, that they are justly entitled to the said compensation, (the same as mounted volunteers,) for the term of six months. And your memorialists will ever pray.
Speaker of the House of Representatives.
Presidente del Consejo Legislativo.
[SEAL] A true copy of the original, passed session of 1857-58.
Witness my hand and seal of office, January 14 1860.
Secretary Territory of New Mexico.

MEMORIAL of the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of New Mexico.
To the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States in Congress assembled:

Your memorialists represent, and have the honor to lay before your honorable bodies, that during the year A.D. 1850, Hon. Ramon Luna, prefect of the county of Valencia, and Territory of New Mexico, under orders No. 22, from Colonel E.W. Newby, commanding ninth military department, dated Santa Fé, New Mexico, March 27, 1847, and with permission from Colonel John Monroe, United States army, civil and military governor of New Mexico, organized and called out for the defense of New Mexico, a battalion of mounted volunteers to repel the continual hostilities of the Navajo Indians, then at war with the United States within this Territory; that said battalion was composed of four companies, consisting of about three hundred and forty-two men, and served from the 15th day of November, 1850, to the 20th day of January, A.D. 1851, in actual service in the field in pursuit of the hostile Navajo Indians; and during said period they were in several engagements with the enemy, in which engagements several men and horses were killed, and a large amount of property recaptured from the Indians, (see Major Luna's report, published in House Documents, part 3, 1851-52;) and further, all the persons that rendered service as above-mentioned, furnished themselves with everything during the two months and five days they were in service; and further, they would respectfully refer to the muster rolls of nearly all of said volunteers, on file in the adjutant general's office, Washington, D.C., copies of which are now on file in the secretary's office of this Territory; they would also respectfully refer to Annual Messages and accompanying Documents, first session Thirty-second Congress, 1851-52, from page 447 to 467, for proof, and the necessity of their service, and the hostilities of the Indians, and particularly Ramon Luna's report, on pages 450 and 451 of said Documents.

Therefore your memorialists pray and beseech your honorable bodies to make an early and liberal appropriation of at least $75,000 to indemnify those volunteers, who, with permission, voluntarily entered the service, and who served faithfully and patriotically as aforestated; and that they also be allowed the benefits of donation acts for bounty land, &c., believing, as we do, that the above-mentioned sum is required as compensation for pay, subsistence, forage, transportation, lost horses, &c.
And your memorialists will ever pray.
Speaker of the House of Representatives.
Presidente del Consejo Legislativo.
A true copy of the original, passed session of 1857-58.
[SEAL] Witness my hand and seal of office, January 14 1860.
Secretary Territory of New Mexico.


Whereas the legislative assembly of the Territory of New Mexico, at the session of the years 1857-58, passed a memorial, memorializing the Congress of the United States in relation to, and asking for, an appropriation for the payment of two brigades of militia, for their military services, (one from the county of San Miguel and the other from the county of Rio Arriba.) who rendered services against the Indians in this Territory in the year 1854, in conformity with a proclamation and orders of his excellency William S. Messervey, acting governor of New Mexico in 1854; and whereas, during the same session, another memorial was passed in relation to, and asking for an appropriation for the payment of a battalion of volunteers from the county of Valencia, for services which they rendered to the United States, having been organized for the protection of the frontiers of New Mexico, and who made a campaign against the Navajo Indians in the year 1850-51, under the orders of Major Ramon Luna, commanding the battalion: Therefore,
Be it resolved by the legislative assembly of the Territory of New Mexico, That our delegate, Don Miguel Antonio Otero, be, and he is hereby, respectfully requested and directed to call the attention of Congress to the aforementioned subject during the present session of said Congress.

Be it further resolved, That the honorable secretary of the Territory be requested to transmit a copy of this preamble and resolutions to the Hon. Miguel Antonio Otero, our delegate to the Congress of the United States, at Washington, D.C., as soon as practicable.
Speaker of House of Representatives.
President of the Legislative Council.
A true copy of the original passed session 1858-59.
[SEAL]Witness my hand and seal of office, January 14, 1860.
Secretary Territory of New Mexico.
Delegate to the Congress of the United States
from the Territory of New Mexico.

MEMORIAL of the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of New Mexico.
To the honorable the Senate and House of Representatives
of the United States of America in Congress assembled:

Your memorialists, the council and house of representatives of the legislative assembly of the Territory of New Mexico, in session assembled, would respectfully represent to your honorable bodies that the legislative assembly of this Territory, during its session in the years anno Domini 1857 and 1858, passed a memorial, memorializing the Congress of the United States in relation to, and asking and praying for an appropriation for, the payment of two brigades of militia (one from the county of San Miguel and the other from Rio Arriba) organized and called into actual service in the field in the military service of the United States by his excellency William S. Messervey, acting governor of New Mexico, in anno Domini 1854, and also that the legislative assembly aforesaid during its session passed another memorial, memorializing the aforementioned Congress, asking and praying for an appropriation for the payment of a battalion of New Mexican mounted volunteers, organized in the county of Valencia, Territory aforesaid, and commanded by Major Ramon Luna, during a campaign against the Navajo Indians, in anno Domini 1850 and 1851; and further, that during the years anno Domini 1858 and 1859, the legislative assembly of New Mexico, in session assembled, passed a preamble and joint resolution, directed to the Hon. Miguel A. Otero, delegate in Congress of the United States for this Territory, calling on and respectfully requesting him to call the attention of Congress to the aforesaid memorials and subject during the last session of the said Congress; therefore, your memorialists most respectfully call the attention of your honorable bodies to the aforementioned memorials and subject, asking and praying that you will give the same a favorable consideration, in order that the wishes of your memorialists may be carried out, and an early and liberal appropriation (of at least the amount asked for in the aforesaid memorials) be made for the payment of the patriotic service rendered by the aforementioned militia and volunteers, and your memorialists will ever pray &c.
And whereas, it is the earnest desire of this legislative assembly that the aforesaid memorials, preamble, and joint resolution be placed in the hands of proper persons, in order that the subject may be properly placed before Congress: Therefore,
Be it resolved by the legislative assembly of the Territory of New Mexico in session assembled, That the Hon. A.M. Jackson, secretary of the Territory, be, and hereby is, respectfully requested to forward to Hon. Miguel A. Otero, our delegate in Congress, to the honorable Speaker of the House of Representatives and President of the Senate, to the honorable Chairman of the Committee on Ways and Means, House of Representatives, and to the Hon. John S. Phelps, member of Congress from Missouri, one copy each of the above mentioned memorials and preamble and joint resolution, and also to each of said persons one copy of this memorial, at as early a date as practicable.
President of the Senate.
Speaker of the House of Representatives.
A true copy of the original passed session of 1859-60.
Witness my
[L.S] and seal of office January 14, 1860.
Secretary Territory of New Mexico.

Congressional edition by United States. Congress, U.S. G.P.O., 1868
Chaves vs. Clever
in the case of
J. Francisco Chaves vs. Charles P. Clever,
Delegate from the Territory of New Mexico
June 24, 1868.-Ordered to be printed by the Committee of Elections, under resolution of the House of March 7, 1867.
February 18, 1868
Trinidad Lopez sworn:...
Q. Look on that poll-book and see if you find the name of a man that was drowned a year ago?
A. I find in this poll-book number 624, Jose Guadalupe Gallegos, deceased, in the county of San Miguel, one year ago.
Q. How did he die?
(Question objected to and objection sustained.)
February 19, 1868...
Present as on yesterday. Testimony of Trinidad Lopez continued.
Re-cross examination:
Question. About what time of day did the fight take place, and did you see more than one fight during the day?
A. The fight took place between 1 and 2 o'clock in the afternoon. I saw only one fight.
Q. Are you certain there was no man by the name of Jose Gudalupe Gallegos living in New Mexico at the time of the last election?
A. I am certain that I do not know any other person by that name of Jose Guadalupe Gallegos but the deceased, who was a resident of the county of San Miguel.

William Kronig sworn:
Q. Look at the paper marked C, satisfy yourself what it is, and state what it is.
A. The poll-book for 1865, for precinct number seven, known as Golondrinas...
Q. How many different settlements are there in this precinct?
A. There are Canon, Mr. Lopez's place, Barclay's Fort, Tiptonsville, Watrous's place, the Sapello, Casa de en Media, the Mill, Boone Valley, Cherry Valley...
Q. How many voters were there in Fort Union at the last election-legal voters?
A. I do not know.
Q. Do you know how many men from Fort Union voted in the last election in this precinct?...
A. Yes, sir; there were.
Q. Do you know how many men from Fort Union voted in this precinct last fall?
A. No, sir.
Q. Do you know a man in this precinct by the name of Jose Guadalupe Gallegos?
A. No, sir; I do not know.

Congressional edition 1873-4, 43rd U.S. Congess, 1st Session, Senate
Ex. Doc. No. 38
Letter to the Secretary of the Interior communicating
Reports of the surveyor-general of New Mexico on the private land claims under grants to Felipe Gutierrez and Juan José Gallegos, No. 83 and No. 84

from The Contested Homeland: a Chicano history of New Mexico by David Maciel, Erlinda Gonzales-Berry, p63

Prior to the settling of Las Vegas and Tecolote, Manuel had patrolled the area with a small military squadron out of San Miguel del Bado. His assignment had been to protect livestock herders in the area and to escort Santa Fe Trail caravans as they approached San Miguel. After Las Vegas and Tecolote were settled, Manuel Herrera continued to maintain a small military outpost near Tecolote at a place called Plaza del Torreon. After the American occupation, Brigadier General Manuel Herrera headed seven companies of mounted militia and led organized campaigns against the Apache and Navajo Indians.

Colonel (United States) from Wikipedia

19th century
The rank of colonel was relatively rare in the early 19th century, partly because the Army was very small, and the rank was usually obtained only after long years of service. During the War of 1812 many temporary colonels were appointed, but these commissions were either considered brevet ranks or the commissions were canceled at the war’s conclusion. Shoulder Strap from an infantry colonel in the Union Army

The American Civil War saw a large influx of colonels as the rank was commonly held in both the Confederate Army and Union Army by those who commanded a regiment. Since most regiments were state formations and were quickly raised, the colonels in command were known by the title "Colonel of Volunteers," in contrast to Regular Army colonels who held ranks from the "old school" of the professional army before the Civil War.

After the Civil War, the rank of colonel again became rare as the forces of the United States Army became extremely small. However, many brevet colonels were appointed again during the Spanish American War, prominent among them Theodore Roosevelt and David Grant Colson.

Coronado, Knight of Pueblos and Plains by Herbert E. Bolton

Desert Lawmen: The High Sheriffs of New Mexico and Arizona Territories, 1846-1912 by Larry D. Ball

Descendants of Bachiller Don Diego de Terrazas (~1460-?)

Assuming that Luis Gallegos (Gallego) de Terrazas is the grandson of Francisco de Terrazas opens up the question where the Gallegos came from since Francisco de Terrazas was from Extremadura not Galicia where the Gallego name is suppose to have originated. ...After the destruction by Cortes and his men of the Aztec empire, Cortes created the Encomienda awarding them to his men. According to The Encomenderos of New Spain, the encomienda was a grant of Indians who were to provide the grantee (encomendero) tribute in the form of commodities and service in return for protection and religious instruction (neither of which were given, in many cases), .ie., the Spaniard was given you a huge piece of land that had many Indian men, women, and children. He could use them free of charge for whatever... to build castles, have children with any of the Indian woman, etc. Francisco de Terrazas did have several natural children as did many of Cortes' men that were given encomiendas. It is unlikely that the mothers of these children were Spanish.

In Spain, as in other lands, a short hand method of showing one's parentage was developed by adding an -es, -as, -is, or -os (common to Portuguese surnames) or an -ez, -az, -is, -oz (common to Castilian or Spanish surnames) to the end of the father's name. Hence in Spain "Juan hijo de Rodrigo" (John son of Rodrigo) became Juan Rodriguez (John Roderickson) and in Portugal, Juan Rodrigues. These surnames are now called patronymic surnames and some typical examples are: Mendez (son of Mendo), Alvarez (of Alvaro), Gonzalez (of Gonzalo), Ortiz, (Ortun), Ibañez (Iban), Jimenez (son of Ximena).

In addition to patronymic surnames (Rodriguez, Alvarez, etc.) the many towns, villages, fortresses, hills, bodies of water, valleys, mountains, and regions were a very rich source of geographical surnames. A man by the name of Ricardo living in the town of Lugo, might be called Ricardo de Lugo, or if he lived in or near caves, Ricardo de las Cuevas. Names like Vasco (Basque) or Vasquez (son of a Basque) might indicate nationality as well as place of birth. Surnames like Ebro, Duero and Sosa refer to the names of rivers. Torre and Torres refer to towers and Castillo to a castle, Cuesta and Llanos to a hill and a valley, del Mar, to the sea, Costa and Acosta to the coast, etc.

Donaldson, James Lowry (1814-1885)

Fort Union Historic Resource Study @ National Park Service
Chapter 3 Military Operations before the Civil War
Chapter 5 Fort Union and the Army in New Mexico During the Civil War

During May [1854] Acting Governor Messervy called into service for three months a battalion of militia to include 200 volunteers. These were stationed in northeastern New Mexico to protect the settlements "from the invasion of the Indians." In addition to the hostilities of the Jicarillas, the Kiowas, Comanches, and Cheyennes were reported to be raiding in San Miguel County where fourteen New Mexicans were killed. Lieutenant Colonel Cooke, back at Fort Union, declared that the attacks by the plains tribes "is reasonably to be expected & in retaliation of serious depredations committed by the Inhabitants of the territory on them: viz, the annual destruction of buffalo within their country." Garland attributed the murders in San Miguel County to the unprovoked killing of plains Indians by buffalo hunters the previous winter. "These Indians," he wrote, "as is their custom took their revenge."
(Messervy to Brig. Gen. of the 2nd Brigade of the 2nd Division of the Militia of the Territory of New Mexico, May 27, 1854, & Messenvy to Cooke, May 30, 1854, AC; Cooke to Nichols, June 6, 1854, LR, DNM, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Garland to Thomas, June 30, 1854, LS, DNM, v. 9, pp. 200-201, USAC, RG 393, NA.)

Hatch's Ranch was considered to be a strategic location in the area because it was close to the Pecos River settlements, near the Fort Smith route to Albuquerque, and in an area through which Comanches and Kiowas often entered the settled regions of New Mexico. The ranch become a military outpost in the department the following year.
Meriwether to Manypenny, May 28 & Sept. 18, 1855, LR, N-439-1855 & N-527-1855, OIA, RG 75, NA; Fauntleroy to Nichols & Fauntleroy to Johnston, Sept. 20, 1855, & Fauntleroy to Nichols, Sept. 26, 1855, LS, FU, USAC, RG 393, NA; Special Orders No. 94, HQ DNM, Sept. 22, 1855, DNM Orders, v. 27, p. 206, USAC, RG 393, NA; Nichols to Brooks, Sept. 27, 1855, & Nichols to Carleton, Sept. 30, 1855, LS, DNM, v. 9, pp. 403, 407, USAC, RG 393, NA; and Garland to Thomas, July 31, Sept. 30, & Oct. 31, 1855, LS, DNM, v. 9, pp. 380-381, 408,423, USAC, RG 393, NA.

Four leagues of Pecos: a legal history of the Pecos grant, 1800-1933 by G. Emlen Hall @ Google Books

Philip L. Fox - Research Notes
Commissioner of Patents Annual Report by United States Patent Office, 1867

No. 55,844.—Philip L. Fox and George P. Herthel, Jr., St. Louis, Mo.— Hydraulic Spindle and Turning Apparatus for Draw Bridges.—June 20, 1860 — Friction is reduced by supporting the pivot ot the counterbalanced platform on the piston of a hydraulic engine. The platform is protected against unequal strain by anti-friction wheels which bear against the inner surface of a ring concentric with the turning pivot.

Claim. — First, the application of fluid pressure to the pivot of turning bodies, when used to raise the same and diminish the friction resistance to the turning motion, substantially as described and shown.

Second, the counter-balance, when operating in connection with such fluid pressure in raising the structure to be turned, substantially as shown and described.

Third, tho combination and arrangement of the pivot C and cylinder D, in conjunction with the counter-balancing apparatus E and the pump F, all acting substantially as and for the purposes shown and described.

Fourth, the ring surface M, the friction rollers N, tho gearing N', when used in combination substantially as and for the purposes set forth.

Congressional edition by United States Congress

List of patents of inventions, designs, and reissues, 1866
Patent No. 55844; Patentee Fox, Philip L., and George P Herthel, J.; Residence St. Louis, Mo; Invention or discovery Bridges, draw, hydraulic spindle and turning apparatus for; Date June 26, 1866

Journal of the Common Council, of the city of Philadelphia

To approve of contract of W. L. Suddards & Co. for grading, &c, City avenue, from Ford road to Lancaster turnpike, and the sureties therefor.

Section 1. The Select and Common Councils of the City of Philadelphia do ordain, That they do hereby approve of the contract of William L. Suddards and Philip L. Fox, copartners under the firm of William L. Suddards & Co., with the City of Philadelphia, and the township of Lower Merion, Montgomery county, dated December 30, 1868, for grading and banking up the roadway and construction of bridges on City avenue, from Ford road to Lancaster turnpike, and do further approve of George Smith and John J. Bartram as sureties for the faithful execution of said contract.

The Lincoln Log

Memorandum: Interview with Philip L. Fox
Executive, Mansion Sep. 7. 1861.

This day Philip L. Fox, of Philadelphia, is introduced to me by Friend Newton, and says that within this week, in this City, Gilead Smith, who Mr. Fox says is to sail from New-York next wednesday, as a government agent to purchase arms in Europe, called on him (Fox) and, in presence of two others, F. N. Buck, and Martin Thomas, both of Philda., spoke of arms which Mr. Fox knew of for sale, and asked Fox what would be the price, and being told $15-17-& 19- proposed to join in purchasing them and putting them on the government at $22. to $27. and dividing the profits. Mr. Buck introduced Smith to Mr. Fox. Mr. Fox says he replied that he was not a seller, and desired having no more to do with the matter than to let the government know where the arms were to be purchased. Mr. Buck and Mr. Thomas call and say they heard a conversation with Smith & Fox---that Fox was trying to sell a lot of arms upon the sale of which he, Fox, was to have a commission of 50 cents per gun---that Smith and not, as they understood, represent himself to an agent of the government; but did propose to Fox to join him in getting the guns on to the government at a price which leave a profit for them to divide, & they understood Fox to agree to it. Neither Smith nor Fox professing to be a government agent---nothing appeared wrong in their conversation. Both are men of good character & Smith is brother-in-law to John Edgar Thompson.

Pennsylvania at Gettysburg: ceremonies at the dedication of the monuments... Volume 1, W. S. Ray, printer, 1904

The Reserves at Gettysburg
About three o'clock on the afternoon of July 1, 1863, the Pennsylvania Reserves crossed the line, and entering the state laid down in the wood. The division was commanded by Brigadier-General S. Wylie Crawford, U.S. Volunteers, Major U.S. Army. His staff consisted of:

...Captain Philip L. Fox, Assistant Quartermaster

Scientific American, Volume 15 Munn & Co., 1866

55.844.— Hydraulic Spindle And Turning Apparatus For Drawbridges.—Philip L. Fox and George P. Herthel, Jr., St. Louis, Mo.:

We claim, 1st, The application of fluid pressure to the pivot of turning bodies, when used to raise the same and diminish the friction resistance to the turning motion, substantially as described and shown.

2d, The counter-balance, when operating in connection with such fluid pressure in raising the structure to be turned, substantially as shown and described.

3d, The combination and arrangement of the pivot, C, and cylinder, D, in conjunction with the counter-balancing apparatus, E, and the pump, F, all acting substantially as and for the purposes shown and described.

4th, The ring surface, M, the friction-rollers, N, the gearing, V, when used in combination substantially as and for the purposes set forth.

U. S. Army register by United States Adjutant-General's Office, U. S. Govt. Print. Off., 1864

Assistant Quartermasters of Volunteers
Philip L. Fox; Commissioned Nov 26, 1862; born in PA; approved in PA

The Virginias, a mining, industrial & scientific journal... Volume 4 by Jedediah Hotchkiss

List of Members and Associates of Am. Inst. M. Engs. present at Roanoke, Va., Meeting. — As a matter of general interest we have obtained from Secretary T. M. Drown the following list of the Members and Associates of the American Institute of Mining Engineers that attended the recent Roanoke, Va., meeting.

...Philip L. Fox, Philadelphia, Pa.

Genízaro from Wikipedia

Etymology: Genízaro is a Spanish word that evolved from the English word janissary which in turn evolved from the Ottoman Turkish word yeniçeri, a term used to describe the slaves trained as soldiers for the Ottoman Empire.

History: Beginning in 1692 Young Indian captives were sold into slavery in New Mexico. Many of the captives complained of mistreatment and were settled in land grants on the periphery of Spanish settlements according to a policy established by the Governors. These settlements became buffer communities for larger Spanish towns in the event of attack by enemy tribes surrounding the province. The following description of the Tome-Valencia settlements by a Spanish Religious official (Fray Menchero) in the 1740s provides insight as the politics of the settlement of Genizaros on land grants:

"This is a new settlement, composed of various nations, who are kept in peace, union, and charity by the special providence of God and the efforts of the missionaries,... the Indians are of the various nations that have been taken captive by the Comanche Apaches, a nation so bellicose and so brave that it dominates all those of the interior country...They sell people of all these nations to the Spaniards of the kingdom, by whom they are held in servitude, the adults being instructed by the fathers and the children baptized. It sometimes happens that the Indians are not well treated in this servitude, no thought being given to the hardships of their captivity, and still less to the fact that they are neophytes, and should be cared for and treated with kindness. For this reason many desert and become apostates. Distressed by this, the missionaries informed the governor of it, so that, in a matter of such great importance, he might take the proper measures. Believing the petition to be justified,...he ordered by proclamation throughout the kingdom that all the Indian men and women neophytes who received ill-treatment from their masters should report it to him, so that if the case were proved, he might take the necessary measures. In fact a number did apply to him, and he assigned to them for their residence and settlement, in the name of his Majesty, a place called Valencia and Cerro de Tome, thirty leagues distant from the capital to the south, in a beautiful plain bathed by the Rio (del) Norte. There are congregated more than forty families in a great union, as if they were all of the same nation, all owing to the zeal in the father missionary of Isleta, which is a little more than two leagues from there, to the north. This settlement dates from the year 1740. The people engage in agricultural and are under obligation to go out and explore the country in pursuit of the enemy, which they are doing with great bravery and zeal in their obedience, and under the direction of the said father they are erecting their church without any cost to the royal crown." The settlements of Tomé and Belén, just south of Albuquerque also were described by Juan Agustin Morfi as follows in 1778: "In all the Spanish towns of New Mexico there exists a class of Indians called genizaros. These are made up of captive Comanches, Apaches, etc. who were taken as youngsters and raised among us, and who have married in the province... They are forced to live among the Spaniards, without lands or other means to subsist except the bow and arrow which serves them when they go into the back country to hunt deer for food…They are fine soldiers, very warlike…Expecting the genizaros to work for daily wages is a folly because of the abuses they have experienced, especially from the alcaldes mayores in the past... In two places, Belen and Tome, some sixty families of genizaros have congregated."

Tribal Origins: Throughout the Spanish and Mexican period Genízaros settled in several New Mexican villages such as Belén, Tomé, Valencia, Carnué, Los Lentes, Socorro, and San Miguel del Vado.[9] Genízaros also lived in Albuquerque, Atrisco, Santa Fe, Chimayó, Taos, Abiquiú and Las Vegas. Most Genízaros were Navajos, Pawnees, Apaches, Kiowa Apaches, Utes, and Paiutes who had been purchased at a young age and functioned as servants and sheepherders.

In the 18th century many of the young captives were sold as slaves by the Comanches, who dominated the weaker tribes in the eastern plains.[11] Almost all of the more recent Genízaros in fact were of Navajo ancestry during the Mexican and early American period (1821–1880). During negotiations with the United States military, Navajo spokesmen complained that over half of the people in the tribe were servants in Mexican households. Most did not return to the Navajo nation but remained as the lower classes in the Hispanic villages.[13] Today they comprise much of the population of Atrisco, Pajarito, and Los Padillas in the South Valley of Albuquerque, and significant portions of the population of Las Vegas in Eastern New Mexico.

19th Century: In 1821, Mexico gained independence from Spain, and New Mexico became a state of the First Mexican Empire. The Treaty of Córdoba enacted by Mexico decreed that indigenous tribes within its borders were citizens of Mexico. Under Spanish rule Genízaros and Pueblo Indians/Natives were often treated as second-class citizens, even though they were protected by the Laws of the Indies. Officially, the Mexican government proclaimed a policy of social equality for all ethnic groups and Genízaros were at least officially considered equals to their Vecino and Pueblo neighbors. During this period, the term Genízaro was officially dropped from church and government documents. In practice however, Mexico was far from egalitarian, and most Genízaros remained at the bottom of Mexican society. Economic and social conditions under Mexico were so bad that in 1837 the Pueblos, Genizaros, Coyotes, and Vecinos revolted against the Mexican government. Rebels cut off the head of Albino Perez (the Mexican Governor), and killed all of the Mexican troops in Santa Fe. They formed a new government and elected José Angel Gonzáles, a Genízaro of Taos Pueblo and Pawnee ancestry, as governor. The revolt was often referred to as the Chimayoso Revolt after the infamous community of Chimayó, in Northern New Mexico, which was home to José Angel Gonzáles and many other mixed-blood Indians. It was one of many revolts against the Mexican government by indigenous groups during this period, including the Mayan revolt in the Yucatán.

Green, Duff
Civil War anniversary: General Duff Green by Anita Thornton Dalton, from the Dalton Daily Citizen
The Credit Mobilier of America: its origin and history, its work of constructing the Union Pacific railroad... by Jay Boyd Crawford
Facts and suggestions, biographical, historical, financial and political: addressed to the people of the United States: addressed to the people of the United States by Duff Green
How to pay off the national debt: regulate the value of money, and maintain stability in the values of property and labor by Duff Green
A national register of the society, Sons of the American Revolution by Louis Henry Cornish, Alonzo Howard Clark p.732
New-found letters of Josiah Gregg: Santa Fé trader and historianUse It!
Report of the Select Committee of the House of Representatives, appointed under the resolution of January 6, 1873: ...inquiry ...Union Pacific Railroad Company, the Credit Mobilier of America

The American Antiquarian Society (AAS)
• New Found Letters of Josiah Gregg, Santa Fé Trader and Historian by John T. Lee, 1930 from the Proceedings for Apr. 1930

Appletons' cyclopaedia of American biography, Volume 2 edited by James Grant Wilson, John Fiske, 1887
GREEN, Duff, politician, b. in Georgia, about 1780; died in Dayton, Ga., 10 June, 1875. He studied law in early life, and was admitted to practice. In 1801 he published a newspaper in Baltimore, called "The Merchant," and from 1825 to 1829, during the administration of John Quincy Adams, edited the opposition journal at Washington. During Jackson's first term he conducted the administration organ, "The United States Telegram." Mr. Green was credited with immense party power, and it was believed that he influenced the policy of the executive; but in 1830, on the alienation of John C. Calhoun, he took sides with the vice-president. He supported Henry Clay for the presidency in 1832, and Mr. Calhoun in 1836, and for many years was a political power in his section of the country. His later life was devoted to the advancement of the industrial interests of the south.

Hispanic Americans in Congress @Library of Congress
José Manuel Gallegos
Miguel Antonio Otero

History of Arizona and New Mexico, 1530-1888, Hubert Howe Bancroft
also see NM Office of the State Historian

History of Arizona and New Mexico, 1530-1888, Hubert Howe Bancroft

House journal: proceedings, Volume 33 by New Mexico. Legislative Assembly. House of Representatives

Note: for the actual laws passed by this session of the Legislative Assembly for the Territory of NM see...
Laws passed by the General Assembly of the Territory of New Mexico i.e.,
Laws of the Territory of NM Passed by the Legislative Assembly, Session of 1859-60


DECEMBER, 6th, 1858.
In conformity with the provisions of the Laws of the Territory, the following members of the House of Representatives met in the Representative Hall at half past 11 o'clock A.M.
Mr. Gallegos of San Miguel, proposed Mr. Pedro Valdez of Taos, as Speaker pro tem, who being unanimously elected took the chair as such.

On motion of Hon. Jose G. Gallegos, Mr. John W. Dunn, Chief Clerk pro tem.
On motion of Mr. Gallegos of San Miguel, the members present, presented their credentials to wit.

Hon. Pedro Aragon from Rio Arriba.
Felipe " Sanchez Taos.
Bonifacio " Romero Santa Fé.
Francisco Lopez " Valencia.
Mateo Romero " Taos.
Jose Guadalupe Gallegos " San Mignel.
0.P. Hovey " Santa Fé.
Jose Vigil " Valencia.
Miguel Gonzales " Bernalillo.
Jose Lueras " Bernalillo.
Ant. Guad. Cordova " Rio Arriba.
Pedro Valdez " Taos.
Hon. Rafael Vigil from Taos.
Manuel de'Herrera " San Miguel.
Pedro Mares " Taos.
Jesus Ma. de Herrera " Santa Fé.
Juan Benavides " Santa Fé.
Nicolas Lucero " Santa Ana.
Francisco Estevan Salazar " Rio Arriba.
Manuel Jaramillo " Rio Arriba.
Ant. Reyes Arragon " San Mignel.

On motion of Mr. O.P. Hovey, a committee of eight was appointed to examine the credentials of the Members present.
The committee consisted of
Messrs 0.P. Hovey, Felipe Sanchez, José Vigil, Manuel de Herrera, José Apodaca, Antonio Martinez, José Lueras, and Nicolas Lucero.
A committee of three was appointed to wait upon the Hon. Kirby Benedict, Chief Justice of the Territory and request him to the oath to the members present. The committee appointed consisted of
Messrs. Juan Benavides, Manuel de Herrera and Pedro Valdez.
The members present took the oath in due form and took their seats as members of the House of Representatives. On motion of Hon. 0.P. Hovey, the rules of the last Session of the Legislative Assembly were adopted for the House.
On motion of Hon O.P. Hovey, the House then proceeded to the election of officers and
Mr. José Guadalupe Gallegos, was nominated for Speaker, and these being no other candidate proposed, he was unanimously elected Speaker of the House of Representatives, and on taking the oath required by law, took his seat as such.
On motion of Hon. Hovey, the House then proceeded to the election of the Chief Clerk.
The House then proceeded to elect an Engrossing Clerk. Whereupon, on motion of Hon O.P. Hovey, Mr. Maximo Abreu, was declared unanimously elected Engrossing Clerk. The House then proceeded to the election of an Enrolling Clerk. When, on motion of Hon. Pedro Valdez, Mr. Faustin Baca y Ortiz, was declared unanimously elected Enrolling Clerk. The House then proceeded to the election of a Sergeaut-at-Arms. On motion of Mr. O.P. Hovey, Mr. Lorenzo Martin, was declared duly elected Sergeaut-at-Arms. The House then proceeded to the election of a Doorkeeper. On motion of Hon. Valdez, Mr. Pedro Durán was declared elected unanimously Door Keeper. The House then proceeded to the election of an Interpreter and Translator. When on motion of Hon. Valdez, Mr Louis Felsenthal, was declared unanimously elected Interpreter and Translator for the House of Representatives. Hon. 0.P. Hovey, moved that the officers elect do now be sworn in. Agreed to.
The Officers elect, appeared, took the oath of office and entered upon the discharge of the duties of their respective offices.
Hon Pedro Valdez, presented the following resolution:
Resolved: What the Chief Clerk of this House he hereby authorized to make requisition on the Secretary of the Territory for writing materials, and such other thing's as may be necessary for the use of this House.
The resolution was adopted.
Hon. Pedro Valdez presented the following resolution:
Resolved: That the thanks of the members of this House be tendered to the Hon. Kerby Benedict for his courtesy in visiting the House and administering the oath to the members and officers thereof.
The resolution was adopted.
On motion of Hon. 0.P. Hovey, the House adjourned until tomorrow (Tuesday) at 11 1/2 o'clock A.M.

DECEMBER 15th 1858.
Hon. Valdez by leave introduced the following Preamble and Joint Resolution.
"Whereas the Hon. José Guadalupe Gallegos has been elected Speaker of this House of Representatives for the present session of the Legislature, and Whereas the Speaker's Chair of this House is too narrow and too small for our Speaker to seat easy. Therefore be it resolved by the House of Representatives that the Chief Clerk of this House be instructed, to respectfully request the Hon. Secretary of the Territory to furnish a larger chair for the use of our Speaker." The resolution was adopted.

Resolved by the House of Representatives: "That the Chief Clerk of this House be instructed to request the Honorable Secretary of the Territory of New Mexico to furnish a cloakrack as soon as possible for the use of the members of this House." The resolution was adopted.

DECEMBER, 27th, 1858.
Hon. Gallegos introduced an act to be entitled "an act, amendatory of an act, relative to revenue, approved, February lst 1858." Which was read the first time, and On motion of Hon. Lucero, the rules were suspended and the act read the second time. On motion of Hon. Aragon of Rio Arriba, the act was referred to a committee composed of a number from each County The committee composed of one member from each County. The committee appointed consisted of Messrs: Aragon of Rio Arriba, Valdes, Herrera of San Miguel, Romero of Santa Fé, Lucero Gonzales, Lopez, aid Torres.

DECEMBER, 30th, 1858.
Hon. Valdez, by leave, introduced the following Preamble and joint resolution. "Whereas this House has been informed by the Hon. Secretary of the Territory that Messrs Francisco Ferea, Damasio Chavez and Ignacio Gonzales are the representatives of Bernalillo County, according to the original returns of the election held on the 1st Monday of September 1858. Therefore. Be it resolved by the House of Representative, That Messrs: José Lueras and Miguel Gonzales are not llegally elected representatives for the County of Bernalillo, and therefore, their seat are hereby declared vacant. Be it further resolved: That Messrs: Francisco Perea, Damacio Chavez and Ignacio Gonzalez, are legally elected and entitled to their seats as representatives in this House." The resolution was adopted. Hon. Valdez qffered the following resolution: Resolved: That the Speaker of tbe House order the Sergeant-at-arms to require Messrs. Francisco Perea, Damacio Chavez and Ignacio Gonzales to appear and take their seats as representatives for the County of Bernalillo, or to show good cause for not doing so." The resolution was adopted.

DECEMBER, 31st, 1858.
The following communication was received from the Hon. Francisco Perea, to wit: ..."To the Hon. José Guadalupe Gallegos Speaker of the House of Representatives: SIR: To the resolution of the House, asking me to give my reasons for declining to take a seat in that Hon. House, as a member from the county of Bernalillo, I have the honor to respond: In the first place, I never consented to my name being placed before the people as a candidate for the office to which l was elected and secondly, I would inform the House, that the health of my family, makes my presence absolutely indispensable. I was not aware that it was my duty to resign after I had been elected, or I would have done so, in order to give the people of my county an opportunity to elect another in my place. With assurances to the Hon. House, that I would be very happy to accompany them in providing for the good of our common country, if the matters above mentioned would permit me. I am, Mr. Speaker with much respect, Your Obd. Servant, FRANCISCO PEREA"

The communication was adopted. On motion of Hon. Valdez, Hon. Francisco Perea was excused from attending on the House during the present session.

On motion of Mr. Valdez, the order given to the Sergeant-at-Arms for the arrest of Messrs. Ignacio Gonzales and Damacio Chavez, was withdrawn.

...Hon. Herrera from San Miguel, introduced "An act to increase the revenue without taxing the people." Which was read the first time.
Hon. Vigil in the chair.
On motion of Hon. Gallegos, the rules were suspended and the act read the second time. Hon. Gallegos offered to amend as follows: after the word "shall apply" insert "one hundred lashes" and instead of the words, "out of the Legislative funds, paid out of the Congress of the United States," insert, "shall be paid out of the estate or farm of one Manuel de Herrera of San Miguel, Territory of New Mexico."
Which amendments were adopted.
Hon. Valdez offered the following amendment. Strike out of the act, introduced by Mr. Herrera of San Miguel all from "section first to section seventh and the balance remain" The amendment was adopted and On motion of Hon. Hovey the act was considered engrossed and read the third time, and
On motion of Hon. Valdez the act was rejected.

Hon. Hovey introduced a Joint Resolution, addressed to Hon. Miguel A. Otoro, to use his efforts in procuring an appropriation by Congress to pay the Brigades organized under the order of Mr. S. Messervy, acting Governor, which was read... and passed.

JANUARY, 3rd 1859.
..."An act relative to Indian Depredations," was read the third time and passed.
"An act, relarive to orchards and vineyards," was read the third time and passed

...The Speaker announced that he had signed:
An act creating an additional Precinct in Valencia County."
An act concerning a revision of the Laws." and
A memorial asking Congress, to pass an appropriation of $500,000 for school purposes in this Territory."

JANUARY 4th, 1859.
A communication was received from S.B. Watrons addressed to the members of the Territorial Legislature was read.
Hon. Sanchez in the chair.
On motion of Hon. Gallegos the communication was adopted, and
On motion of Hon. Gallegos the communication was ordered to be published in the Santa Fé Gazette, and that fifty copies of the same be printed for the use of this Assemby.

...Hon. Sanchez, introduced, "an act regulating the punishment of disorderly persons." Which was read... and
On motion of Hon. Gallegos the act was referred to the committee on judiciary.

JANUARY 8th, 1859.
..."An act relative to Territorial and County Revenue and Prohibiting Gaming," was read the third time and passed.

JANUARY 11th, 1859.
Hon. Gallegos of San Miguel moved the report of the Committee on Territorial Affairs be referred to the committee of the whole House. The vote being taken, the Speaker decided the motion to refer to tbe Committee of the whole House last. Hon. Gallegos, appealed from the decision of the Speaker, when the House refused to sustain his decision. So the report was referred. In committee of the whole House. The committee rose. On motion of Hon. Valdez, the rules were suspended and the act read the third time, and
On motion of Hon. Sanchez, the act passed.

...A Council Memorial, asking Congress to establish an Indian Agency, was read... and passed.

JANUARY 13rd, 1859.
A Council Bill, "amendatory of the Law, relative to Contracts between Masters and Servants," was read the first time.
On motion of Mr. Lopez, the rules were suspended and the Act read the second time. Hon. Sanchez moved to refer the act to the Committed of Public Property. The vote being taken, the Speaker decided in the affirmative. Hon. Hovey appealed from the decision of the Speaker and called for the Ayes and Noes. Ayes 8, Noes 11. So the Speaker was not sustainid by the House.
The act remained in the order of unfinished business.

JANUARY 15th, 1859.
...Hon. Hovey, by leave introduced a Preamble and Joint Resolution, addressed to the Hon. John B. Floyd, Secretary of War of the United States, and to Colonel B.L.C. Bonneville, Military Commandant of this Territory, requesting the establishment of a Military Fort on Red River, in the County of San Miguel, which was rend the first time. On motion of Hon. Romero of Santa Fé, the rules were suspended and the Resolution read the second time.
Hon. Apodaca moved the Resolution be referred to the committee on Territorial Affairs. Not agreed to.
Hon. Apodaca appealed from the decision of the Speaker.
The House sustained the decision of the Speaker.
On motion of Hon. Aragon of Rio-Arriba, the rules were further suspended, the Resolution read the third time and passed.

..."An act relative to contracts between Masters and Servants," was then read the second time. On motion of Mr. Sanchez, the act was referred to a select committee. The committee was composed of Messrs. Sanchez, Cordova and Torres.

...The council concurred in the passage of the House Act entitled "An act relative to Territorial and County Revenue and the prohibition of gaming," with the following amendment
Insert in section 1st, line 5th, "relative to the quantity of goods introduced or received for sale by each merchant." The House concurred in the amendment.

JANUARY 18th, 1859.
The House met pursuant to adjournment.
The roll was called and a majority being present the House proceeded to business.
The journal of yesterday was read and approved.
On motion of Hon. Herrera of San Miguel the House took a recess for 10 minutes.
At the expiration of 10 minutes the Honse was called to order.
0n motion of Hon. Romero of Santa Fe the House adjourned until tomorrow at 11 1/4 o'clock AM.

JANUARY 19th, 1859.
...On motion of Hon. Hovey, it was ordered by the House, that the Chief Clerk thereof, transmit to the Secretary of the Territory, the Treaty of Peace, lately made with the Navajo Indians, and request the printing thereof, in accordance with a joint resolution, requiring the the same to be printed.

Hon. Hovey moved that committee composed of three members, be appointed to ascertain if the House is duly organized or not, in consequence of the absence of the duly elected presiding officer.
Hon. Aragon, of Rio Arriba, called for the Ayes and Noes, and the vote being taken it was decided in the Affirmative.
Ayes 14, Noes 5.
So the motion to appoint was affirmatived.

JANUARY 20th, 1859.
...A committee from the Council was received requesting the Signature of the Speaker to certain acts passed by both Houses.
The Speaker announced to the House that he had signed the following entitled acts.
"An act requiring the Judges of the Districts to hold courts in the different counties," and
A Joint Resolution "authorizing the Secretary of the Territory to have 400 copies of the Treaty with the Navajo Indians printed."

...A Council Joint Resolution declaring the Code revised by James J. Deavenport, Ex-chief Justice of New Mexico, incomplete and incorrect, was read... On motion of Mr. Valdes, the Resolution was referred to a select committee composed of one member from each county.

Hon. Hovey by leave made the following report.
The select committee appointed to ascertain whether or not the House is duly organized, having an Speaker pro tem in the Chair, have the honor to inform the House, that this House is duly and legally organized and the proceedings thereof-are legal and valid and that the Hon. Felipe Sanchez is properly the Speaker pro tem during the absence of the Hon. Jose Guadalupe Gallegos, Speaker of this House and that the Hon. Speaker Gallegos is not compelled to resign.
PEDRO VALDEZ |- Committee
Hon. Aragon of Rio Arriba Called for the Ayes and Noes on the adoption of the report, when it was decided in the affirmative.
Ayes 12 Noes 7.
So the report Was adopted.

On motion of Hon. Torres, the act amendatory of to the act "relative to contracts between Masters and Servants," was taken up read... and passed.

JANUARY 21st, 1859.
A message was received from His Excellency the Governor informing the House that he had approved the following entitled acts and Joint Resolution to wit.
An act Authorizing courts to be held in the different counties.
An act repealing an act giving criminal Jurisdiction to Probate Judges.
An act providing for drawing up forms for judicial proceedings.
An act concerning Territorial and County Revenue.
An act fixing the limits of Precinct No. 1 and 9 of the county of Santa Fé, and
A Joint Resolution "authorizing the publication of the Treaty of peace with the Navajo Indians.
All of which originated in this House.

JANUARY 24th, 1859.
"An act, providing for the protection of slave property in thihs Territory," was read...
Mr. Valdez moved the rules be suspended and the act read the third time and
The ayes and noes being called it was decided in the negative: Ayes 9, Noes 11.
So the act was not rend the third time.
Hon. Herrera of San Mignel, moved the act be referred to a select committee of one member from each county and the ayes and noes being called the motion to refer was decided in the affirmative. Ayes 11, Noes 9.
The committee appointed are Messrs. Herrera, S.M. Hovey, Valdez, Vigil of Valencia, Lucero, Jaramillo and Apodaca.

Hon. Hovey by leave introduced the following resolution.
Be it resolved by the House of Representatives, "That the Hon. Secretary of the Territory be directed and authorized to contract for the printing of three hundred copies of the act, introduced in this House in relation to "Slave Property in this Territory," two hundred in Spanish and one hundred in English for the use of the Assembly." The resolution was adopted.

...A committee from the Council appeared, requesting the signature of the Speaker to ascertain acts passed by both Houses.
Whereon the Speaker announced that he had signed acts of the following titles, to wit
"An act amendadatory of the law relative to contracts between Masters and Servants,"
"An act, to lesson the expenses of the Territory," and
A Memorial, "relative to Indians."

JANUARY 26th, 1859.
"A council joint resolution, requiring the Editor of the Gazette to publish in the Spanish language, all bids to be let by the Government, was read... and passed.
A Council joint resolution autiiorizing the Governor to offer one hundred dollars reward for the apprehencion of the murderes of Thomas Rowland.
Was read... and passed.

"An act ceating the office of Attorney General," was read... and passed.

JANUARY 28th, 1859.
Hon. Herrera of San Miguel, made the following report:
The selecting committee of one member from each county to which was referred "an act to provide for the protection of Slave property in this Territory," and with an amendment, that shall inserted at the end of the section 29 of said act, report it back to the House and recommend the adoption of said amendment and passage of said act."
The report was adopted, and... the act was... read.... Whereupon the act passed.

JANUARY 29th, 1859.
Hon. Valdez presented a memorial addressed to His Excellency, James Buchanan, President of the United States, setting forth injuries resulting to the people from the want of District Jadges. Which was read... and passed.

A message was received from His Excellency the Governor stating that had signed the following entitled acts, which originated in this House to wit:
"An act relative to the practice in the District Court."
"An act authorizing the Probate Judge of Taos County to hold a term of Court in Mora."

...Hon. Hovey, introduced:
"An act authorizing the publication of the decisions and opinions of the Supreme court."
Which was read... and passad.

Hon. Lopez by leave made the following report:
"The select committee to which was referred "an act, restraining the vice of Gaming" have the honor to report to the House that the committee have had the act under consideration and report it buck and recommend its passage."
The report was adopted. On motion of Mr Hovey, the rules were suspended, the act read the third time and passed.

...Hon. Romero of Santa Fé, by leave, made the following report
The select committee to which was referred "An act, providing for the construction of a Market House in the City of Santa Fé, have had the same under consideration, report it back to the House and recommend its passage."
The report was adopted and the act read the third time and passed.

JANUARY 31th, 1859.
"An act fixing the limits of precincts in the County of Rio Arriba," was rejected by the Council.
The House Bill entitled
"An act fixing the northorn boundary of the county of Valencia," was rejected by the Council.
The Council concurred in the passage of the Honse a Bill entitled
"An act authorizing the publication of the decisions and opinions of the Supreme Court," with the following amendment
"That two thirds be published in Spanish and one in English."
The amendment was adopted.
The Council concurred in the passage of
"An act providing for the construction of a Market in the City of Santa Fé."
The Council concurred in the passage of a House memorial, addressed to the President, James Buchanun, relative to the Judges of this Territory.

...Hon. Valdez, by leave, presented the following resolution:
Be it resolved by the House of Representatives of the Territory of New Mexico.
"That a committee of three members appointed by the Speaker of House for the purpose of visiting the Hon. Guadalupe Gallegos, Speaker proper of this House, and express the regret of this body, for his illness."
The resolution was adopted.
The committee was composed of
Messrs Valdez, Hovey and Herrera of San Miguel.
FEBRUARY, 1st 1859.
A committee from the Council appeared, and requested the signature of the Speaker to certain acts passed by the Assembly.
Whereupon the Speaker announced that he had signed acts of the following titles, to wit, which originated in the Council:
"An act providing the mode of selecting jurors,"
"A joint resolution, authorizing the Secretaiy to have Government's Contracts printed.
A joint Resolution, requesting the Governor to transmit copies of a law creating additional precincts in the County of San Miguel, to the Probate Judge thereof.
An act, creating the office of Attorney General for the Territory."
An act authorizing a revision of the Laws, and
A joint resolution, authorizing the Governor to offer a reward for the apprehension of the murderers of Thomas Rowland.

...Hon. Valdez, by leave, introduced:
"An act providing for two terms of the Supreme Court in each year etc." Which was read... and passed.
Hon. Valdez, introduced:
"An act declaring, what shall be evidence in certain cases."
Which was read...
On motion the ayes and noes being called on the final passage of the act.
On the question, shall the act pass, it was decided in the affirmative
Ayes 12, Noes 9.
So the act passed.
A Joint Resolution relative to C. Carson, Indian Agent, which was read the first time.
...the Resolution read... and passed.

Mr. Hovey introduced a memorial, asking for an appropriation of one Hundred Thousand dollars to construct a road from Neosho to Alburquerque, which was read the first time. read the third time and passed.
FEBRUARY 2th, 1859.
The council concurred in the passage of a House Bill "Relative to two terms of the Supreme Court."
The House Joint Resolution, relative C. Carson, was concurred in by the Council.
The council concurred in the passage of the Souse Bill, "providing against the vice of Gaming."
A Council Bill,
"Providing for the collection of Territorial and County revenue," was read the first time.
...the act was referred to one member from each county.

...Hon. Romero of Santa Fé, introduced:
"An act prohibiting planting in the common pasture grounds."
Which was read the first time.
Hon. Apodaca moved the act be rejected, and called for the ayes and noes, and the vote being taken the motion to reject was negatived by a vote of 8 affirmative to 10 negative.
So the act was not rejected.
...Hon. Aragon moved, the rules be suspended and the act read the second time, Not agreed to.
Hon. Hovey moved the rules be suspended and the act read the second time in order to refer it to a committee. Not agreed to.
The act passed to its second reading under the rules.

...Hon. Hovey introduced:
"An act to favor the Navigation of the Rio del Norte."
Which was rand the first time.
Hon. Aragon, of Rio Arriba, moved the act be rejected, and called for the vote on the motion to [be] rejected and the ayes and noes being called it was decided in the affirmative.
Ayes 15. Noes 4.
So the act, relative to opening the navigation of the Rio del Norte was rejected.

...A joint resolution, tending thanks to the Military Officers, who had served in the Navajo war, was read the first time, and
On motion of Hon. Aragon of Rio Arriba, was laid in the table indefinetly.
...A Joint Resolution relative to Lieut. Edw. F. Beale, was read... and passed.

FEBRUARY 3rd[?], 1859.
Hon. Hovey made the following report
The committee on Enrolled Bills, to which was referred
"An act provide for the proteciton of Slave Property in this Territory."
"An act entitled "an act, restraining the vice of Gaming."
A Joint Resolution "authorising the prohibition of the Laws, Joint Resolutiona and Memoriales passed at the present session."
"An act to establish the times and places for holding the District Courts in the several Counties," and a Joint Resolution, "relative to the duties of tbe Chief Clerks," all of which are correctly enrolled.
The report was adopted.

A committee from the Council appeared and informed this House, that Messrs. H. Connelly, A. Chacon and Miguel Sena y Romero, had been appointed a Committee on the part of the Council to confer with a similar one on the part of the House on the Joint Resolution, relative to the revised Code.

...The committee appointed on the part of this House are
Messrs Herrera of San Miguel, Romero of Santa Fé and Cordova.
Hon. Valdez introduced a Joint Resolution "Tendering thanks to His Excellency, Governor A. Rencher for his courtesy in all his relations with the Assembly during the present session."
Which was read...and passed.

...Hon Romero of Santa Fe, presented the following resolution
Resolved by the House of Representatives of the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of New Mexico: "That the members thereof acknowledge their gratitude and high appreciation, for the activity and able manner of José Guadalupe Gallegos, Speaker of this House, in which he has discharged the duties of said office, during the present session, and the thanks of this House is also hereby tendered to the Hon. Felipe Sanchez, Speaker pro tem., who has presided during the absence of the Hon. José Guadalupe Gallegos, caused by sickness."
The resolution was adopted.
The Speaker announced to the House, that he had received a communication from the Hon. José Guadalupe Gallegos, expressing to the members of the House, his sincere acknowledgements for the honor conferred upon him, in choosing him to preside over this body during the session.

...A message was received from His Excellency the Governor, in which he informed the House that he declined signing the Bill entitled:
"An act to restrain the vice of Gaming."
A committee from the Conncil appeared, and solicited the signature of the Speaker to certain acts passed by both House of the Assembly.
Whereupon, the Speaker informed the House that he had signed a memorial asking for an appropriation of $100,000.
"A Joint Resolution relative to the final adjournment."
"A joint resolution relative to the revised code," and
"A joint resolution, tendering thinks to Governor A. Rencher."
All of which was approved by the House.
On motion of Hon. Herrera of San Miguel, a committee was appointed to present a copy of the resolution passed by this House, to the Hon. José Guadalupe Gallegos, in which thanks were tendered to him.

...A message was received from His Excellency the Governor, by Hon. Samuel Ellison his Private Secretary, informing the House that he had signed and approved the following entitled acts passed by both Houses.
"An act providing for two terms of the Supreme Court." "An act to provide for the publication ofthe decision of the Supreme Court."
"An act creating two additional precincts in tiro Connty of Taos."
"An act abolishing precinct 10 in Valencia county."
"An act authorizing the construction of a Market."
"An act fixing the times and places for holding the District Courts."
"An act for the protection of Slave property," and
"A Joint Resolution, relative to the publication of the laws passed at the present session."

...There being no further business, and the time fixed in the joint resolution having arrived, for the final adjournment.
Hon. Hovey moved the House do now adjourn sine die.
The vote being taken on the motion to adjourn sine die, it was decided in the affirmative.
Whereupon, the Speaker declared this House adjourned sine die tine die
Chief Clerk of House of Representatives.

History of New Mexico: its resources and people, Vol.1 by George B. Anderson, Pacific States Publishing Co p.110
It was two years after the signing of the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo before a stable government was provided for New Mexico and it became formally a territory of the Union. The military commanders of the department were the actual heads of the government. After the departure of General Price, the successors in the office were Colonel E.W.B. Newby in 1847 and Major B.L. Beall in 1848. Major John M. Washington took command in September, 1848, and in October, 1849, Colonel John Monroe assumed control.

When the treaty of peace was signed the military government ceased to exist, according to the view of one considerable party. But the authorities at Washington argued that the temporary government established during the war remained as a de facto government and should continue until Congress could provide a territorial organization. Congress was very slow to undertake the necessary measures, because the disposition of the ceded territory had at once become a matter of controversy between the northern and southern representatives in Congress. In the meantime the military régime continued to preserve law and order and afford protection to the Territory, while the politically active, eager to assume their part as a territory or state of the Union, made a number of fruitless attempts to form a civil government and secure its recognition in Washington.

Kiva, Cross and Crown the Pecos Indians and New Mexico by John L. Kessel
from the National Park Service: Discovery History
Chapter 9 Toward Extinction 1794-1840

Chpt.9 Twenty-odd miles downriver southeast of Pecos pueblo, it lay at the place where the trail to the plains crossed the river, "where," according to the petition, "there is space enough not only for the fifty-one of us [fifty-two counting Márquez] who ask but also for as many in the province who are destitute." They described the boundaries of this new Eden simply: "in the north the Río de la Vaca [Cow Creek] from the place called La Ranchería to El Agua Caliente; in the south El Cañón Blanco; in the east La Cuesta and Los Cerritos de Bernal; and in the west the place commonly called El Gusano [South San Isidro]."

Thirteen of the fifty-two men who applied were genízaros, those ransomed Indians and their descendants who lived as Hispanos, exactly twenty-five percent. Although more genízaros would move to the area later, the settlers themselves fostered the quarter-truth that his was "a genízaro settlement" in order to win concessions from church and state. Twenty-five of the fifty-two had firearms. All of them pledged as one "to enclose ourselves in a plaza well fortified with bulwarks and towers and to make every effort to lay in all the firearms and munitions we possibly can."

Finally, don Pedro called them all together and admonished them to put up promptly solid landmarks of rock. That would prevent disputes. None of them, he concluded, was free to sell or otherwise alienate his land for a period of ten years, beginning that day, March 12, 1803. After he had gone through the same routine two days later at the settlement of San José del Vado, three miles upstream from San Miguel, distributing farm land to forty-five men and two women, Pedro Bautista Pino made ready to ride back to Santa Fe. The settlers crowded around him. Nine years later he recalled the scene in his book.

H. Bailey Carroll and J. Villasana Haggard, eds., Three New Mexico Chronicles (Albuquerque, 1942), pp. 8n, 215 n. 2. San Miguel del Vado Grant, SGNM no. 119. SANM, I, no. 887. Although Pino did not mention the five-year residency requirement, it applied to similar community grants made by Governor Fernando Chacón, for example the Cebolleta Grant at the foot of Mount Taylor. Reeve, "Navaho Foreign Affairs, 1795-1846," part I, 1795-1815, NMHR, vol. 46 (1971), pp. 108, 121. Juan de Dios Ferná:ndez, the former Pecos Indian, was not listed among the recipients of farming lands at either San Miguel or San José. One of the San Miguel genízaros, José María Garduno, who received 130 varas of land in the distribution, was arrested four years later in Chihuahua as a vagrant. SANM, II, no. 2043.

The presence of so many Spaniards and mixed-bloods making love, giving birth, and dying on the Río Pecos, at first far away downriver but still within the jurisdiction of the mission, should have meant closer attention to Pecos by the Franciscans. And it did for a time. Then, as the disparity widened, as the El Vado settlements propagated and Pecos shrunk further and further, the priest moved out to El Vado and visited the Pecos less often than when he had resided in Santa Fe.

Reporting on his ministry in 1801, Father [Buenaventura] Merino put the total population of Pecos pueblo at 59 males and 64 females. There were 182 settlers downriver at San Miguel del Vado, 85 of them men and boys and 97 women and girls. Characterized by the friar as "very poor," both Hispanos and Indians grew maize, wheat, and a few vegetables in fields irrigated by the Río Pecos, but only enough to subsist. They ran only a few head of cattle and no sheep or goats "because the enemies don't let them increase." Filling out the rest of the questionnaire, Merino declared that in his district there were no industries or commerce worth mentioning, no bridges over the river, and no good timber for the royal navy.

Fr. Buenaventura Merino, Santa Fe, June 10, 1801, Cathedral Archive, Durango. Merino, who signed the Pecos books between May of 1792 and February 1802, had entered the Order at the convento in Medina de Río Seco on October 18, 1759, had professed his religious vows there on October 19, 1760, and had studied philosophy for three years, sacred theology for three, and moral theology for a year and a half. Elected preacher in 1768, he served subsequently in the conventos of Almazán and Atienza. Nomina de los religiosos, June 28, 1803, BNM, leg. 10, no. 77. Chávez, Archives, p. 166. Merino and Fr. Severo Patero to the viceroy, Colegio de San Fernando de México, Mar. 30, 1790, et al., AGN, PI, 161, part 7.

A Church for El Vado: Father Bragado endured at Pecos almost six years. He saw the rowdy mixed-breed communities of San Miguel and San José del Vado almost double in size. Evidently work was progressing on the San Miguel church, but not without incident. Once in the summer of 1805 when Manuel Baca, interim deputy justice of the district, ordered Ignacio Durán, in charge at San José, to beat the drum for the people to come work on the church, not everyone assembled. Reyes Vigil and his sons refused. When Duran ordered them, Vigil told him that he could "eat shit, eat a bucket of shit!" Afterwards, at Vigil's corral, the two got into a name-calling, rock-throwing, hair-pulling brawl. Because only a part of the record survives, the outcome of the ensuing legal action is not known.

Bartolomé Fernández, San Miguel del Vado, July 28, 1805, et al., SANM, II, no. 1867.

The Priest Moves to El Vado: Twenty-seven-year-old Fray Manuel Antonio García del Valle, a native of Mexico City, did not stand on tradition. Granted, he had been appointed minister of the mission of Pecos, and it was still the cabecera, or seat of the "parish," but he saw no earthly reason for him to reside in a dying Indian pueblo when the large majority of his parishioners lived ten leagues or so downriver. After relieving González in March 1811, he baptized thirty-two infants for the settlers of El Vado before a Pecos Indian couple finally had a baby. That year the settlers at last finished the chapel of San Miguel del Vado. Why should he not reside there?

Although García del Valle began on March 8, 1811, baptizing babies at the El Vado settlements, he did not mention a church there until late September. Up until then he had been burying El Vado people at Pecos. But on September 28, he buried a girl "in this chapel of San Miguel." On September 30, he baptized a child "in this parish church of San Miguel del Vado belonging to the mission of Nuestra Señora de los Ángeles de Pecos." He celebrated the first wedding "in the church of San Miguel" on October 14, 1811.

Lure of Trade on the Plains: For the average mixed-blood or genízaro who drew a plot of ground at El Vado in 1803, it was not the prospect of a good year for maize or beans that excited him most, but rather the vision of hunting or trading on the plains.

The settlers on the Río Pecos, with or without government sanction, kept on hunting and trading among the Comanches, enjoying "the best relations with that heathen nation . . . calm and at peace as always."

Manuel Baca to Gov. José Manrique, San Miguel del Vado, June 1, 1813, SANM, II, no. 2492. Felipe Sandoval, Santa Fe, Aug. 17, 1814, SANM, I, no. 703. Maynez, Santa Fe, June 14, 1808, SANM, II, no. 2114.

Dispute at North Boundary: The legal battle began in 1818. Juan de Aguilar of Santa Fe, one of Peña's two companions, believed that he had been defrauded. Three years before, he claimed, he had duly acquired a piece of land "in the place known as the surplus of Pecos." Later, the Pecos Indians had protested and called for a new measurement. The alcalde of El Vado, don Vicente Villanueva, complied. In so doing, Aguilar contended, he had deviated from established practice in two regards. First, he had begun from "the edge of the pueblo" instead of the cemetery cross, and second he had used a one hundred-vara measuring cord instead of the standard fifty-vara cord. "As a result several properties have been prejudiced." Aguilar begged Gov. Facundo Melgares to address himself to these two points.


A Concise History of New Mexico by Le Baron Bradford Prince. The Torch Press, 1912

The first newspaper wholly or partly in English was the Santa Fe Republican, which first appeared on September 4, 1847 It was a well printed four page weekly two pages in English and two in Spanish Hovey and Davies were the publishers, and G.R. Gibson the editor. The file belonging to the Historical Society begins with No. 5 October 9, 1847. In December, Mr. Gibson ceased to be editor and thereafter the name of Oliver P. Hovey appears. In 1849, on December 1, the New Mexican appeared at Santa Fe, published by Davies and Jones. The present New Mexican commenced publication January 22, 1863, Charles Leib being the founder. Within a year it was sold to Charles P. Clever and by him to W.H. Manderfield.

Kirby Benedict: Frontier Federal Judge by Aurora Hunt

Aaron L. Crenshaw, James Porter, James L. Barron v. Simon Delgado,
Administrator Estate of Oliver P. Hovey
January 1866. Appeal from Santa Fe County.
Charles P. Clever for appellant.
R.H. Tomkins for apellee.

This was a bill in chancery. Hovey's estate was insolvent and could pay but 30 or 40 cents on the dollar. The principal inquiry in this was whether or not Crenshaw, Porter, and Barron, as judgment creditors, were entitled to their full pay out of the insolvent estate. "The court cannot fail to regret that during the fifteen years of territorial legislation, the Assembly of New Mexico has omitted to pass acts fully defining and establishing liens upon property, upon renditions of judgments and the manner of distributing among creditors the assets of insolvent estates of deceased persons. In absence of such legislation, the courts are often troubled... in search to find rule or law among civil laws of Spain and Mexico to aid or guide them in their decisions."

Note: the above originally found in Report of Cases Argued and Determined in the Supreme Court of the Territory of New Mexico, 1852-1879

Laws passed by the General Assembly of the Territory of New Mexico 1860-61, Hovey & Davies, 1861

WHEREAS, The divine and supreme Providence, in the exercise of supernatural and unchangeable laws, has seen fit to call to judgment our deceased fellow citizen 0.P. Hovey, and has removed him from among us to that everlasting mansion, which sooner or later, we must all reach; and
WHEREAS There exist in our hearts true sentiments of philantrophy towards the deceased, both on account of his virtues and deportment as a gentleman, and the honesty and fidelity with which he discharged the various public civil and military duties which have devolved upon him in the peculiar affairs of our beloved Territory; and
WHEREAS, It is the duty of a generous people like ours, with whom the deceased was so peculiarly connected, to express acknowledgment and gratitude to those persons who distinguish themselves by their love of public peace and tranquility and the welfare of society, qualities which adorned the deceased O.P. Hovey-therefore
Resolved by the House of Representatives and the Senate of the Territory of New Mexico:
1.-That we deeply feel and lament t he loss of one of our most active and enterprising fellow citizens the Honorable OP Hovey whose death has occasioned a vacancy in the city of Santa Fé and who was a useful friend to the entire Territory.
2.-That we sympathize and unite with his friends, relatives and family, by whom he was so well beloved, in mourning his loss.
3.-That a copy of these resolutions be transmitted by the Speaker of the House to the members of his family.
4.-That these resolutions be published in the Santa Fé Gazette and the Saint Louis Republican.
5.-That this body endorses the proceedings of a public meeting held at the courthouse in the city of Santa Fé on Saturday, the ninth day of August 1862.

Quarter of a Millennium: The Library Company of Philadelphia, 1731-1981 by Edwin Wolf 2nd, Marie Elena Korey. The Library Company of Philadelphia, 1981

The news of the Battle of Brazito is one of the very early New Mexican imprints in English. When General Kearny occupied Santa Fe in August 1846, he borrowed, leased or simply took over the printing press that belonged to Padre Antionio Martinez and had been used in that town since 1834. On September 20, 1846, the general's proclamation appointing officials for the government of New Mexico was printed on the Martinez press. On October 7 a bilingual Laws of the Territory was issued, it is said, under the supervision of Col. Oliver P. Hovey who apparently had had some printing experience. In September 1847 the firm of Hovey and Davies, having acquired a new font of type, began the publication of the Santa Fe Republican. So much was recorded. Our broadside [copy of the of the Battle of Brazito announcement], discovered in a miscellaneous folio scrapbook, was probably printed in January 1847 in the old Santa Fe press, the first imprint to bear the names Hovey and Davies. Its curious appearance is due to a shortage of "w"s, not used in Spanish, in the place of which upside-down "m"s were substituted. It is apparently the only copy known, not noted in any bibliography and not described until an account of it appeared in the Library of Company's 1955 Annual Report.

The statutes at large and treaties of the United States of America, Vol.35, "United States Of America Passed at the First Session of the Thirty Fifth Congress; 1857-1858" edited by George P. Sanger, Little Brown & Company, 1858

Chap. CIV.-An Act for the Relief of Oliver P. Hovey.
Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the States of America in Congress assembled, That the Secretary of the Treasury be, and he is hereby, directed to pay to Oliver P. Hovey, out of any moneys in the treasury not otherwise appropriated, fifteen hundred and fifty-five dollars, compensation for printing the "Kearny Code" of laws for New Mexico in eighteen hundred and forty six.
APPROVED June 5, 1858.
June 5, 1868 $1,555 to be paid Oliver P. Hovey for printing the Kearny Code.

Turmoil in New Mexico, 1846-1868 by William Aloysius Keleher

An original copy of the "Kearny Code" is a valuable collector's item. Five hundred copies were printed in Santa Fe by "General" Oliver P. Hovey, on type and press belonging to the United States Quartermaster's department. Like many printers who fail to get "cash with order" on political jobs, Hovey experienced difficulty in collecting the money for printing the laws. The background of the printing of the code was given in a report of the Committee on Territories, No. 60, House of Representatives, 34th Congress, 3d Session, submitted on Jan. 10, 1857, which recommended payment: "The Committee on Territories have examined the memorial and affidavit of Oliver P. Hovey... from which it appears that on the 7th of October, 1846, the said Hovey was employed by Charles Bent (then acting governor of New Mexico) to print the code of laws for New Mexico which was promulgated by General Kearny, who, under instructions from the War Department, had established a civil government in New Mexico that year. It appears that said Hovey executed said printing, and delivered five hundred copies of the laws for the use of the government, according to contract, for which it had been agreed that he should be paid a reasonable compensation. That his bill of charges for the work amounted to $1,705, but that Governor Bent having died before he (Hovey) had delivered but one hundred copies of the work, he had received but one hundred fifty dollars of the amount, and has not since then been able to prevail upon the government of New Mexico to pay him the balance, though he has repeatedly applied for the samd." Hovey eventually received payment in full for printing the code, eleven or twelve years after he had done the work.

The Leading Facts of New Mexican History, Volume 2, by Ralph Emerson Twitchell

Index: murder of Sheriff Silvestre Gallegos 429-note, 510-512

The first New Mexico legislature convened at Santa Fe, June 2, 1851. Seven of the members-elect were priests. ...Governor Calhoun had been notified by General Pino of serious depredations by Indians in the south and during the session in December, Robert T. Brent, a member of the legislature from Santa Fe, while crossing the Jornada del Muerto was cruelly murdered and scalped by the Apaches. This news brought out a vigorous resolution from the house of representatives wherein it was declared that "since the entrance of the American army under General Kearny this Territory has been a continual scene of outrage, robbery and violence carried on by the savage nations by which it is surrounded; that citizens daily are massacred, stock stolen, our wives and daughters violated and our children carried into captivity." The delegate in congress was asked to secure the passage of an act requiring the organization of at least two regiments of volunteers, to be armed, equipped, subsisted and paid by the general government. The legislature also desired the building of arsenals and presidios at various points on the frontier. At this very time Colonel Sumner, the military commander of the department, was reporting that the Indians were quiet. The body of Brent was brought to Santa Fé at the expense of the territory. Governor Calhoun in a message to the legislature stated that he had made arrangements to meet certain Navajó chiefs at Santa Fé; that the Indians were told that it was the intention of the governor to have them murdered, and on this account only two came to see him, the others remaining beyond the pueblo of Jemez. The governor was of the opinion that had it not been for this false statement made to the Indians by interested parties, every captive would have been released, and that it was his intention to lay the matter before the court, so that the parties, whose names he had, might be prosecuted for treason!

footnote p.291
It is impossible to understand the radical differences in opinion as expressed by various authorities on this subject. Mr. Bartlett, who was at the copper mines of Santa Rita about this time, says that "no one could venture alone, with safety, three miles from the settlements" on account of the Indians. That "two of the largest and most widely spread tribes, the Comanches and the Apaches, are as actively hostile to the Americans and the Mexicans as they were before the country occupied by them became a part of the Union. At no period hare the incursions been more frequent, or attended with greater atrocities, than at the present time" [1852].

Acts of Congress in relation to New Mexico, appropriations, etc., during the decade 1850-1860 are the organic act and appropriation of $20,000 for public buildings and $5,000 for a library; 1851, appropriation of $34,700 for territorial government $18,000 for the Navajó Indians and $135,530 for payment of the volunteers of 1849; 1852, $31,122 for the government of the territory; 1853, appropriation of $32,555 for government expenses and $10,000 for Indian service; authorizing legislature to hold extra session of 90 days; authorizing employment of translator and clerks, sessions of 60 days instead of 40 days, payment of code commissioners; 1854, appropriation for government $31,620, for public buildings $50,000, roads $32,000, and Indian service $45,000; appointing surveyor general and donating lands to settlers; increasing salary of governor to $3,000, and judges to $2,500; attaching Gadsen Purchase to New Mexico; authorizing payment of civil salaries for 1846-1851 under the Kearny code; and establishing a collection district; 1855, appropriation for government $35,500 including $2,000 for archive vaults, Indian service $52,500, surveys $30,000, Texas boundary $10,000, raising governors salary to $3,000; 1858, appropriation for government $33,000, Indian service $85,000; road $150,000; creating a land district; confirming Pueblo land grants; 1859, appropriation for government, $17,000; Indian service $75,000; 1860, appropriation for government $23,500, Indians $50,000, capitol $50,000, confirming private and town land grants; 1861, appropriation for government $20,500, Indians $50,000, roads $50,000; act attaching all north of latitude 37° to Colorado.

p. 375-footnote
Hayes, A. A., in his An Unwritten Episode of the Late War, pp.165, 166, says: "The number of regulars of all arms in the spring of 1862 was put by General Roberts at nine hundred. There were two regiments of New Mexico volunteers, the first having notable officers. The nominal colonel was of the Cáran St. Vrain... The lieutenant-colonel and acting commander was Kit Carson; the major, J. F. Chavez; and one of the captains, Albert H. Pfeiffer... The colonel of the second was Miguel Pino."

A number of the officers of minor grades in the regular army desired to accept commissions in the volunteers. Colonel Canby declined to permit this to be done, and as one of his reasons for this action, said: "The prejudice of the Mexican population towards the Americans is so great that if the field officers are taken altogether from the latter class, it is to be apprehended that it will delay, if it does not defeat, the organization of these regiments. This is not, perhaps, a good military reason, but it is a necessity, from the character of the people we have to deal with. I have also instructed two or three of the most efficient volunteer officers now in the service that, if they would induce the men of their regiments to enter the service for three years, I would recommend them for commissions as field officers. Colonel Gallegos and Lieutenant-Colonel Valdez are among them, and until I can learn what these men are going to do, I could give no definite answer to your question, even if there were no other obstacles to a favorable answer." - Letter of Colonel Canby to Col. G.R. Paul, Fort Union, New Mexico, January 15, 1862.

Control of the county and city of Santa Fe had been lost to the leaders of the republican party for several years. The success of the opposition was directly traceable to the popularity and influence of two prominent men, Romulo Martinez and Francisco Chavez. In 1885, Martinez was the sheriff of Santa Fe county. The national administration now being democratic, Martinez was appointed United States marshal; Chavez, who had been chief deputy, was made sheriff of the county. Thereafter Chavez was the most powerful political personality in the county. Among others of his strong political adherents and friends were Sylvestre Gallegos and Francisco Gonzales y Borrego. In the election of 1890 the last named had been chosen as coroner, who was also ex-officio chief of police of the city of Santa Fe. By virtue of the incorporating of the city of Santa Fé, which occurred about this time, the office of coroner became of no value, as the duties of chief of police were now performed by an appointee of the mayor of the city. Gonzales y Borrego, considering himself imposed upon and not being able to obtain another office from his party friends, sent his resignation to the board of county commissioners. The board declined to accept it and the matter was held in abeyance for some time. Meanwhile, still much dissatisfied, he appealed to Thomas B. Catron for advice and openly declared himself to be republican in his politics. Mr. Catron advised him not to resign his position as coroner. He thereupon asked to withdraw his resignation, but the county board forthwith accepted it and named Sylvestre Gallegos in his place. Bitter personal and political differences resulted. At a public dance, given at a hall on San Francisco street, in the capital, shortly afterward, hot words were had between these two men. Gallegos invited Borrego into the street to fight the matter out. The challenge was accepted, a large crowd following the principals. In the fight which ensued Gallegos was killed. This unfortunate affair was the beginning of the most deplorable series of murders, assassinations and tragedies ever registered in the annals of the territory of New Mexico. The principal tragedy resulting from the killing of Sylvestre Gallegos was the assassination of Francisco Chavez, ex-sheriff of Santa Fé county, one of the most prominent men in the community, and the hanging of the men who were guilty of the crime. Charges that the crime was a political assassination, involving men of great prominence, were made not only in Santa Fé but elsewhere throughout the territory. It was made an issue in two political campaigns, but the guilty persons remained unpunished until the succeeding administration. Other acts of lawlessness were committed in various portions of the territory at this time, notably the fence cutting, assaults, and murders committed by the "White Cap" organizations in San Miguel and other counties in the northern part of New Mexico.

p.511-512 footnote
Immediately after the killing of Gallegos, Gonzales y Borrego was taken to the county jail where he was put in irons. Abont midnight, Sheriff Chavez, who had been out of the city at the time of the killing, came to the jail and assaulted Gonzales y Borrego in a brutal manner. At the hearing before the justice of the peace he was released upon bail. Among other witnesses relied upon by Borrego, in his plea of self-defense, was Faustin Ortiz. Some time afterward Ortiz mysteriously disappeared, and after a lapse of considerable time his body, covered with wounds, was uncovered in the sands of the arroyo Mascareñios, near the point where the arroyo is crossed by the track of the Denver and Rio Grande railroad in the city of Santa Fe. It was charged and believed by many that Ortiz had been murdered on account of his having championed the cause of Borrego; that he was induced to visit the office of the justice of the peace, in the county jail building, on the pretext of examining some furniture with a view of purchasing; that while there he was set upon by Juan Ortiz, the justice of the peace, Eustaquio Padilla and others, all deputy sheriffs, and murdered; that subsequently his body was removed in the night-time and buried in the sands of the arroyo. These facts were testified to by José Amado Martinez in a trial before Chief Justice Thomas Smith in which Eustaquio Padilla was charged with the murder of Ortiz. Padilla was acquitted. At the first term of the district court held in Santa Fe county, after the murder of Ortiz, the grand jury returned indictments against a number of very prominent persons, including Sheriff Chavez, charging them with the murder of Ortiz and as accessories thereto. These indictments were all quashed for the reason that the jury returning them was summoned under the jury act of 1889, it being held that the jury was not a jury of the vicinage. Laws of 1889, ch. 96, sec. 4, p. 227. Thereafter, although brought before the grand jury summoned under the act of the subsequent legislature, no indictments were returned for the murder of Ortiz. The mother of Ortiz was insistent in her demands that the murderers of her son be punished; finally an indictment against Juan Ortiz was returned; he was tried and acquitted. On the 29th of May, 1892, while going from the city to his residence across the Rio Santa Fe, at a point on the Denver and Rio Grande railway bridge, almost in front of the Guadalupe church, Francisco Chavez, who had resigned his office of sheriff, was brutally assassinated. Later on, in front of the residence of the archbishop, Juan Pablo Gallegos, who had been a deputy under Sheriff Chavez, was shot and killed by Francisco Gonzales y Borrego, while in company with Leureano Aland, Antonio Gonzales y Borrego, and another. Gallegos was lying in wait for Gonzales y Borrego; at the time of his death he was endeavoring to fire his own pistol; a knife and a sling-shot or "billy" were found on his person. Gonzales y Borrego was tried for this killing and acquitted. After the murder of Sheriff Chavez, the mother of Faustin Ortiz no longer insisted that the murderers of her son should be punished. Prior to that time her demands upon the governor and the prosecuting officers had been most vigorous, but no evidence was available which would justify an indictment, and the trial of any one would have resulted in an acquittal. The murder of Sheriff Chavez created a great sensation, in Santa Fé and throughout the entire territory; by reason of his personal presence, his generous disposition, and other commendable traits of character, Chavez had many friends and followers. His prominence and the cowardly character of his murder aroused intense public feeling and indignation. Investigation, during the administration of Governor Thornton, who succeeded L. Bradford Prince in the office, led to the arrest of Francisco Gonzales y Borrego, his brother, Antonio Gonzales y Borrego, Laureano Aland, Hypolito Vigil, and Patricio Valencia. At the time of the arrests, Vigil was killed while resisting the officers. At the June term, 1894, of the district court, Santa Fé county, they were indicted for the murder of Chavez. At the March term, 1895, a special term was called by N. B. Laughlin, associate justice; Judge Laughlin deemed himself disqualified to sit and asked Associate Justice H. B. Hamilton, of the 5th district, to preside. The trial began April 28, 1895, and the defendants were each found guilty. A motion for a new trial was overruled. An appeal was taken to the supreme court, but the judgment was affirmed. Other proceedings were had in the supreme court of the United States, but without result favorable to the defendants. Efforts were made with the president of the United States to secure a commutation of the sentence. They were unavailing. The principal counsel for the accused was Thomas B. Catron, who, on account of the vigorous manner in which he had conducted the defense, the money which necessarily had been expended, and the malicious statements and insinuations of political rivals and enemies, was charged with having more than a professional interest in the outcome of the case. The defendants were finally hanged. Prior to their execution they confessed their guilt, but denied that Mr. Catron or any other outside of those who had been formally charged with the crime had been connected with the murder in any capacity whatever. Revenge was the controlling motive in this great crime. The mother of Faustin Ortiz, at whose residence these men were accustomed to meet at times, exerted an influence over them on account of the murder of her son. Hipolito Vigil became a party to the conspiracy owing to his intimacy with a woman 'with whom Chavez was also on friendly terms. Laureano Alarid was a relative by marriage of the Borregos. A desire for political supremacy may possibly have been a motive, but at the time Chavez was assassinated he had ceased to be a political power in the county; the effort on the part of designing persons to connect prominent republican politicians with this infamous crime was born of malice and a selfish desire to discredit and effectually silence the really powerful men at that time in control of the republican party.

The Leading Facts of New Mexican History, Volume 4, by Ralph Emerson Twitchell

Without exception, in the days of construction of the Santa Fe railway into the Southwest, there was no town which harbored a more disreputable gang of gamblers, desperadoes, and outlaws than did Las Vegas. They controlled, for a while, the local police officers, and the dance halls, and public resorts were the scenes of many shooting affrays and robberies. In the new town, in the immediate vicinity and in front of the present Castenada hotel, were located some of the most disreputable saloons, dance-halls, and resorts ever in frontier days. The gambling houses never closed and the gambling fraternity did about as they pleased. It finally became necessary to organize a committee of one hundred for the safety of the better classes and visitors to the place. Several desperadoes were summarily dealt with, taken from the jail or from their resorts and hung. Notice was served upon every "undesirable" to leave forthwith and in this manner the town was rid of as desperate a gang of cutthroats and "bad men" as ever congregated in one place in the Southwest.

The late seventies may be said to have closed the pioneer period of Las Vegas, and at a banquet given by the settlers of '79, in February, 1902, a striking list of departed pioneers was presented to the guests. Only the "old-timers" recognized the names of the deceased: Caribou Brown, French Pete, Billie the Kid, Dutch Charlie, Dirty-face Mike, Hoodoo Brown, Red Laughlin, Scar-face Charlie, Pawnee Bill, Kickapoo George, Jack-knife Jack, Off Wheeler, Sawdust Charlie, Johnnie Behind the Rocks, Fly-speck Sam, Beefsteak Mike, Mysterious Dave, Hatchetface Kit, Broncho Bill, Solitaire, Texas George, Durango Kid, Jim Lane, Pancake Billy, Cock-eyed Frank, Rattlesnake Sam, Kansas Kid, Red the Hack Driver, Split-nose Mike, Kim Ki Rogers, Charlie the Swede, Web-fingered Billy, Nigger Bill, Curley Moore, Light-fingered Jack, "Chuck," Billy the Kid the Second, Pretty Dick, Forty-five Jimmy, Lucky Dick, Wink the Barber, Red Mike, Silent Henry, Double-out Sam, Dutch Pete, Curly Bill, Black Kid, "Kingfisher," Handsome Harry the Danc-Hall Rustler, Flap-Jack Bill, Big George the Cook, Jimmie the Duck, Cock-eyed Dutch, Little Dutch the Detective, "Smooth," Pock-marked Kid, Flap-Jack Bill, Buckskin Joe, "Tennessee," Brocky-faced Johnnie, Piccolo Johnnie, Pistol Johnnie, Big-foot Mike, China Jack, "Pinky," Happy Jack, Big Burns, Cold-deck George, Hop-fiend Bill, Pegleg Dick, "Rosebud," "Sandy" (Red Oaks), Dutch the Gambler (Jim Ramsey), Red-face Mike, Dummy the Fox, Red River Tom, Hold-out Jack, Short Creek Dave, "Skinny," Long Vest George, Smokey Hall, Bald-faced Kid, Cockey Bill, One Armed Jim the Gambler, One Armed Kelley, Lord Locke, Long Lon, Maroney the Peddler, "Shakespeare," Chuck Luck Betts, Hog Jones, Hog-foot Jim, Bostwick the Silent Man, Hurricane Bill, Pawnee George, "Blondy," Shotgun Bill, "Scotty," Big Murphy, Box Car Bill, Little Jay, "Kentuck," Tommy the Poet, Sheeny Frank, "Shorty," Skinney the Barber, Elk Skin Davis, Broken Nose Clark, Soapy Smith, Squint-eyed Bob, Stuttering Tom, Repeater Shan, Buttermilk George, Billie-Be-Damned, and Candy Cooper.

The Legislative blue-book of the territory of New Mexico; with the rules of order, fundamental law, official register and record, historical data, compendium of facts, etc. 1887. C.W. Green, public printer

Then comes material for a large volume on the honorable part New Mexico took in tlie war of the rebellion.
The Territory contributed of volunteers to the Union armies of 1861-65 about six thousand men and to a line of service that was specially arduous,-that was included in long and frequent marches; scouting, waiting and watching in inhospital regions, both as against rebels expected and Indians present. It was a kind of service, be it recorded, that was neither calculated to inspire enthusiasm or command glory.

It was a service full of drudgery, but none the less important and honorable. The troops in New Mexico, however, early made one of the most important contributions to the early history of the war. It was the battle of "Apache Canon" (March 28, 1862) with the Union forces under Col. Slough and the rebels under Gen. Sibley. The issue between the contending forces resulted in driving the enemy from the field and from the Territory once for all, back to Texas, whence they had started a few months previously full of hope and expectation. It thus became
Western, we mean in contradistinction to the Mississippi valley or Central line and the Atlantic slope or Eastern line of operations. Of names specially prominent and honorable in connection with the war it is but just to add those of Henry Connelly, the war Governor; Hons. Fecundo Pino, Jose M. Gallegos, Rev. Jose A. Martinez, ex-Governor Vigil, Trinidad Romero, Oliver P. Hovey, and Pedro Sanchez, as men who rendered excellent service in council, and who were members of the legislatures at those times. It is due in like manner to mention those who rendered special service in the field:
Gen James H. Carlton, commanding the department; Gen. Christopher Carson, Col. Frank P. Abreu, Col. Miguel E. Pino, Gen J.R. West, Lieut. Colonels J.F. Chavez, Wm. McMullen, Frank Perea, E.W. Eaton, E.R. Bergman, Manuel Chavez, Ceren St. Vrain and Julius C. Shaw, and Majors Arthur Morrison, Rafael Chacon, Albert Pfeiffer, Jose D. Sena and Manuel D. Pino.


The San Francisco call, Jan. 19, 1902 from the Library of Congress, Chronicling America

Montezuma Mining Company of Washington: article - see top of 2nd column

extracts from...
New Mexico Historical Review Vol.18, January 1943, University of New Mexico
“Historical Society Minutes, 1859-1863”
from the New Mexico Historical Review
Note: also see Members of the NM Historical Society

Historical Society Minutes, 1859-1863
Edited by Lansing B. Bloom

THE FACT that the Historical Society of New Mexico came into being in December 1859 suggests that the early records of this organization might afford a somewhat novel picture of community life in Santa Fe just prior to the Civil War. This surmise is confirmed by a perusal of the minute book which served for the years 1859 to 1863, because in the names of officers and members, active and honorary, we have a perfect galaxy of men many of whom are well known historically in widely variant walks of life but all of whom here unite for the objectives which we shall find set forth in their constitution and by-laws. Participating in the meetings and activities of the Society during this initial period of its existence, we shall find officers of the U. S. Army and Territorial officials (some of whom were shortly to resign their commissions and throw in their lot with the Southern Confederacy), judges and lawyers, churchmen (Protestant as well as Catholic), Indian agents, politicians, merchants and traders, publishers, officials and members of the Territorial Assembly. Altogether it is a remarkable aggregation, and a significant fact is that a large number of the men who thus showed their interest in the investigation, study, and preservation of things cultural were Spanish-American. Their names represent some of the best known old Spanish families of the Southwest. Several names also will be recognized as those of early representatives of the Jewish race who found their way to New Mexico as traders and merchants.

Where did the Historical Society hold its sessions? By the time of its second regular monthly meeting, they were occupying a hall which had been "rented from Bishop Lamy, for the reasonable sum of Twelve Dollars per month" and which had been furnished (because of much liberality of Santa Fe merchants) at a total expense of only about $175.00. Aid was acknowledged also in "transportation of the property by Major Donaldson and in making of curtains by Misses Bonneville and Sloan." Unfortunately the location of this hall which seems to have served the Society until they disbanded in September 1863 is not indicated; nor have we identified the residence of the first president, Colonel Grayson, where the adjourned meeting of December 28, 1859, was held and also probably the first regular meeting of a month later.

We are on somewhat surer ground as to the place where the first "public meeting" was held (and also its two adjourned sessions), for we are told that those interested in the "preliminary proceedings to form a Historical Society of New Mexico" gathered on the evening of December 15, 1859, in the "Council Chamber." We know that this was then one of the halls of the Palace of the Governors; and we are fortunate in having a contemporary description of this hall from the pen of W. W. H. Davis.
fNote: Davis, El Gringo (New York, 1857), 168-170.

After locating and describing the court-house of that period, Davis continues:

Having seen all the sights in and about the court-house, we turn our backs upon the casa de justida, and continue our journey of route. We enter the Plaza at the northeast corner, and immediately the eye ranges along the portal of the palace in front of which we are now standing. It is not far from three hundred and fifty feet in length, and varies from twenty to seventy-five in width. The portal or piazza in front is about fifteen feet wide, and runs the whole length of the building, the roof being supported by a row of unhewn pine logs. ...At each end is a small adobe projection, extending a few feet in front of the main building-that on the east being occupied by the post-office, while the one on the west was formerly the calabozo, but is now partly in ruins. The first apartments we come to in going the rounds of the palace are the office of the secretary of the Territory, which we enter through a quaint little old-fashioned door.

We next visit the chamber of the Legislative Council. Passing along under the portal, we again enter the palace about midway of the front, and, turning from a small vestibule to the right, we find ourselves in the room where a portion of the wisdom of New Mexico annually assembles to make laws. The room is a comfortable one, with a good hard floor, and just large enough to accommodate the thirteen councilmen and the eight officers. The pine desks are ranged round the wall facing inward, and the president occupies a raised platform at one end, which is ornamented with a little red muslin drapery. Figured calico is tacked to the walls to prevent the members carrying away the whitewash on their coats a thing they have no right to do in their capacity of law-makers. The executive chamber is on the opposite side of the passage-way, into which we step and find his excellency hard at work. ...

...All that we can safely say is that the Council chamber where our Historical Society was started on its career was in the famous old Palace of the Governors. ...the hall would have been heated by a glowing open fireplace at each end, and that it would be lighted by flickering candles distributed in sconces and candlesticks.

...However little the society may seem to have accomplished before the Civil War, it is clear that the acitivities of the new organization represented an important addition to the cultural life of Santa Fe during this brief period... its membership represented a cross-section as it were of Santa Fe society. The picture thus revealed may call for some readjustment by those whose idea of social life in early Santa Fe has been largely typified by drinking and gambling. [Lansing B. Bloom, Editor]

Note: see source and more information above

Founded December 26th A.D.
Officers of the Historical Society of New Mexico

President: Colonel John B. Grayson U.S.A.
Vice President: W.A. Street
Corresponding Secretary: Dr. W.J. Sloan U.S.A.
Recording Secretary: David V. Whiting
Curator and Librarian: Winslow J. Howard Esq.

Santa Fe, New Mexico
Thursday Evening
December 15th, 1859

On this evening a public meeting was held at the Council Chamber for the purpose of taking preliminary proceedings to form a Historical Society of New Mexico.

On motion David V. Whiting Esq. was called to the Chair, and Winslow J. Howard Esq. was elected Secretary.

It was ordered, on motion, that a committee of five persons be appointed by the chair, for the purpose of framing a constitution and By Laws for the intended Society and to report on Thursday evening December 22nd.

The following Gentlemen were appointed said Committee-viz: Messrs C.P. Clever, Facundio Pino, W.J. Howard, José G. Gallegos and M. Ashurst.
footnote 6 ...José Guadalupe Gallegos should not be confused with Jose Manuel Gallegos. The former was from San Miguel county and served in the House (Dec., 1855); the latter was from Bernalillo county. In December 1858, Jose Guadalupe Gallegos was speaker of the house; a year later (when the Society was organizing) he was president of the council; and still again in December 1860 at which session Jose M. Gallegos presided over the lower chamber (now elected from Santa Fe county).

On motion, the committee adjourned, to meet, at the Council Chamber on Thursday Evening December 22nd at 7 O'clock p.m.

Thursday Evening
December 22nd 1859

The meeting was called to order pursuant to adjournment.
The minutes of the previous meeting were read and approved.
The Committee appointed to draft a Constitution and By Laws for the Historical Society of New Mexico submitted their report.
On motion the Constitution was read entire and then read and acted upon by sections, and adopted as amended.
After protracted debates and discussions upon the several articles of the Constitution, it was on motion ordered that the Constitution be referred to a new Committee consisting of five members with instructions to report again on the evening of the 26th December inst.

The following Gentlemen were appointed said Committee viz:
Major J. L. Donaldson, Col. John B. Grayson, Hon. K. Benedict, Dr. W. J. Sloan and C. P. Clever Esq.

On motion, the meeting adjourned, to meet on the evening of December 26 at 7 O'clock.

Monday Evening
December 26th 1859

The meeting was called to order pursuant to adjournment. The Committee to whom were referred the Constitution to be reframed, made the following Report, viz:

"The Committee to whom was referred the subject of a Constitution of a Historical Society of the Territory of New Mexico, respectfully report"
"That it has endeavoured to form an instrument, as plain, simple and comprehensive as possible, and in which every member of the Committee concurs. At the same time, it acknowledges its indebtedness to the labors of the previous Committee, several of whose ideas it has adopted."
"Although the subject of By Laws was not referred to the Committee, it has drawn up a number, to facilitate the organization of the Society which are herewith submitted and unanimously recommended.

Santa Fe, December 26, 1859"
J. L. Donaldson
Wm. J. Sloan
John B. Grayson
C. P. Clever
Kirby Benedict

The above report was adopted, when on motion the following Constitution was read, viz:

"We, whose names are hereto annexed, residents of the Territory of New Mexico, fully impressed with the vast field for historical re- search which surrounds; determined to devote our best energies to the elucidation of the history of this country, hitherto unwritten, and anxious to co-operate in combined effort, for this object, do now form an association and ordain for our government, the following

Article 1st
This Society shall be called the Historical Society of New Mexico.

Article 2d
The object of this Society shall be the collection and preservation, under its own care and direction, of all historical facts, manuscripts, documents, records and memoirs, relating to this Territory; Indian antiquities and curiosities, geological and mineralogical specimens, geographical maps and information; and objects of natural History.

Article 3rd
Officers... [etc.]

Article 5th

Section 1st. Application for membership must be made to the Society at one of its regular meetings, in writing, and recommended by two members; which application shall lie upon the table, until the next regular meeting thereafter, when a ballot shall be had. A vote of three fourths of the members present, shall be necessary to an election.

Section 2. Persons, not resident of the Territory of New Mexico may be proposed as Honorary Members of the Society by a member, and may be elected at any regular meeting, provided three fourths of the members present concur therein.

Section 3. Corresponding members may be elected by a vote of two thirds of the members present at any regular meeting.

Section 4. All persons who shall subscribe to this Constitution or be elected members of the Society, in accordance with its provisions, shall pay to the Treasurer five dollars.

Article 6
Specific Objects

Section 1. To render effective the action of the Society, it shall be divided into permanent sections, each section to consist of three members to be chosen by ballot; each section shall choose its own chairman. These sections shall be designated as follows, viz:
1. The section on History
2. The section on Geography
3. The section on Indian Races
4. The section on Geology and Mineralogy
5. The section on Antiquities and Collections
6. The section on Natural History

Section 2. It shall be the duty of each section above designated, to take cognizance of all details connected with that particular department; keep a record of its sessions and proceedings; and submit its papers and reports, when completed, to the Society, for its action, and for preservation among its archives. [...etc.]

Santa Fe N M
Dec. 26, 1859.

It was on motion resolved that the Constitution be read by sections...
On motion, the Constitution was adopted entire, as read and amended.

On motion, those persons present who desired to join the Society were requested to proceed to the Secretary's desk and annex their names to the Constitution, which was signed by the following persons, viz:
J. Houghton Col. John B. Grayson
R.A. Wainwright Wm. A. Street
Kirby Benedict Maurice Schwartz Kopf
W.H. Brooks Saml Gorman
C.P. Clever S.M. Baird
J.L. Donaldson Z. Staab
I.A. Hil D. B. Koch
David V. Whiting John D. Wilkins
G.H. Child Wm. J. Sloan
William C. Rencher 0.G. Wagner
Winslow J. Howard D. Hood
Louis Felsenthal Albert Elsberg
Jesus Ma Sena y Baca  

[Note only two of the original committee members signed the Constitution. Missing were Facundio Pino, José G. Gallegos and M. Ashurst]

The Committee on By Laws reported on the following

Article 1st [etc.]

The following persons affixed their names to the Constitution, viz:
James Collins R. Frank Green
Oliver P. Hovey James M. Giddings
Aaron Zeckendorf Pedro Valdez

First regular meeting
Historical Society
Santa Fe New Mexico
January 30, 1860

The Society was called to order at the hour of adjournment by the President.
The minutes of all the preceeding meetings were read and approved.

Applications for membership were received from the following persons, viz:
Bishop Lamy Rev. Thos. Hayes
Messrs. Henry Ruhe J.M. Whitlock
Bernard Seligman Juan C. Tapia
Serafin Ramirez J. Howe Watts
R.V. Bonneau, U.S.A. R.E. Clements
M. Ashurst W.H. Bell, U.S.A.
M. Steck Felipe Delgado
A.P. Wilbar Charles Blumner
José G. Gallegos José M. Gallegos
John Ward F. Metzgar
W.A. Branford Anto J. Otero
S.A. Boices Geo. T. Beall
S.K. Hodges  

[Note Facundio Pino is still missing from the above list.]

Second Regular Meeting
Santa Fe, New Mexico,
February 27th, 1860

The Society was called to order at the hour fixed by the By Laws.
The minutes of the previous meeting were read and adopted without amendment or alteration.

Applications for membership were received from the following [25] persons, viz:
Donaciano Vigi P.J. Eyre
A. H. Pfeiffer95 S. Rosenstein
Juan Perea Rev. Ramon Medina
Rev. J. Salpointe S.A. Hubbell
W. Zeckendorf J.W. Dunn
A. Armijo Jacob Ambergios
C. Rite Jose L. Pereai
E. T. Bucknam F.L. Russ
W. Debuses J. Nangle
A. De Marle R. Jones U.S.A.
E. Brevoort L.W. 0'Bannon U.S.A.
Louis Gold F.P. Abreu
Rev. J. A. Truchard  

95. Albert Henry Pfeiffer was sub-agent for the Ute and Jicarilla Apache Indians from about 1858 to 1871; how much earlier he had arrived in New Mexico is not known, but between 1857 and 1864 he had received the Masonic degrees in Santa Fe. He was to serve against the Texan invasion of 1862; the estimate of a contemporary (A. A. Hayes) is of interest. Writing of the First New Mexico Volunteers which fought at Valverde, Hayes said: "The lieutenant-colonel and acting commander was Kit Carson; the major, J. F. Chaves, and one of the captains, Albert F. Pfeiffer, a very paladin of the frontier, a mild mannered, blue eyed, kindly man and, in the estimation of his fellows, probably the most desperately courageous and successful Indian fighter in the West." (Twitchell, Old Santa Fe, 375, note) Carson has been given the credit for crushing the Navahos in 1863 at the Canon de Chelly, but it was Pfeiffer with his troop who went right through that canon from end to end.

...The following persons were elected members of this Society, viz:
Mr. S.K. Hodges Mr. George T. Beall
Dr. S.A. Boice Hon. A. J. Otero
Mr. W.A. Branford Mr. F. Metzgar
Mr. John Ward Hon. J. M. Gallegos
Hon. J.G. Gallegos Mr. C. Blumner
Hon. A.P. Wilbar Mr. Felipe Delgado
Dr. M. Steck Lt. W.H. Bell
Mr. M. Ashurst Mr. R.E. Clements
Lt. R.V. Bonneau Mr. J. Howe Watts
Mr. S. Ramirez Mr. Juan C. Tapia
Mr. B. Seligman Mr. H. Ruhe
Dr. J.M. Whitlock Rev. Thos. Hayes
Rev. J. Lamy  

The Committee appointed to procure a charter of Incorporation submitted the following Report, viz:
The Committee appointed to procure an Act of Incorporation for the Society, have the honor to report, that they were completely successful, the bill passing both Houses promptly and unanimously.

Owing to the limited period of time before the adjournment of the Legislature the original bill was roughly drawn up, but the Committee have made arrangements to have it engrossed in a more ornamental form for framing.

The Original bill, as it passed the Legislature, is in possession of the Society, to be placed in its archives, if they so desire.

The bill accompanies this Report.
W.H. Brooks, Chairman

A Bill
to be entitled
An Act, to incorporate the Historical Society of New Mexico.
Be it enacted by the Legislative Assembly of New Mexico:

Section 1. That W. J. Howard, D. V. Whiting, J. B. Grayson, C. P. Clever, Dr. Wm. J. Sloan, Jesus Ma Sena y Baca, S. M. Baird and Pedro Valdez, and all persons who are now, or may hereafter become associated with them, as members of the said Association be, and they are hereby created into a body politic and corporate in law and in fact, by the name, style and title of the Historical Society of New Mexico, and by this name shall have perpetual succession, and may sue and be sued, plead and be impleaded in any court of law or equity; to hold and reserve to them and their successors either by grant, bargain, sale, will, gift, devise or otherwise, any lands, tenements, or hereditaments, or any real or personal estate, and at their pleasure to grant, bargain or sell, for the use of said association, and generally to do all and singular the things which it may be lawful for them to do, for the welfare of the said Association.

Section 2. That the objects of said Society shall be, the collection and preservation, under their own care and direction, of all historical facts, manuscripts, documents, records and memoirs relating to the history of this Territory, geographical maps and information, geological and mineralogical specimens, Indian curiosities and antiquities, and objects of natural history.

Section 3. That it shall be lawful for the Historical Society of New Mexico to provide itself with a seal, the device of which the same shall determine, and at its pleasure may alter, change or renew as it may think proper, and shall have and exercise all the rights and privileges necessary for the purposes of the corporation hereby constituted, and as herein specified.

Section 4. That said Society shall have power to form a constitution and adopt by-laws for its own government. Provided: they do not conflict with the second section of this Act, or the Constitution and laws of the United States, or of this Territory.

Section 5. The Legislative Assembly hereby reserves to itself the right of repealing or annulling this Charter, if it should appear at any time to the interest of the public good that this should be done.

Section 6. That this act shall take effect, and be in force from and after its passage.

José G. Gallegos
Presidente del Consejo

Celso Cuellar Medina
Presidente de la Camara de Representantes

Approved Feb. 1, 1860
A. Rencher
Gov. N. Mexico

The report was ordered to be filed and
The following Resolutions were introduced by W. J. Howard Esq. and unanimously adopted.

Whereas It appears expedient that this Society, as an organization having applied for and obtained an Act of Incorporation from the Legislature of this Territory, be it therefore
Resolved: That the Historical Society of New Mexico do hereby accept the said Act as our Charter of Incorporation.

Resolved: That this Society as now fully organized, do hereby ratify and assume all the obligations which the Society, under the general act incurred, and assume the possession of all the property of the Society remaining in possession of its several Officers, and all debts and dues owing to the Society aforesaid.

Resolved: That the original Charter, as obtained from the Legislature, be carefully deposited in some secure Safe, and that a copy of the same be made, both in English and Spanish, and placed in the rooms of the Society. The following Resolution was introduced by the Rev. Sam'l Gorman, and unanimously adopted.

Resolved: That we, the Historical Society of N. M. place ourselves under the act of incorporation passed by the Legislature of this Territory, approved Feb. 1, 1860 with the Constitution and By Laws under which this Society organized on the 26th December 1859.

On motion of C. P. Clever, Esq. a committee of Five members was appointed to revise the 6th Article of the Constitution and to report thereon this Evening. On motion of C. P. Clever, Esq. a committee of Five members was appointed to revise the 6th Article of the Constitution and to report thereon this Evening.

Messrs. Clever, Howard, Gorman, Wagner and Whiting were appointed said Committee...

Special Meeting
Santa Fe New Mexico
March 8th, 1860

In pursuance of a Resolution adopted at the last regular meeting of this Society, it was called to order by Col. W. A. Street Vice President, and an address delivered by Col. J. B. Grayson on the life character and public acts of the late Br. Maj Genl S. W. Kearney U.S.A. [died Oct. 31, 1848] before a large assembly of the members of the Society and the ladies and citizens of the city, which was also read in the Spanish language by D. V. Whiting, after which the Society

On motion adjourned.
David V. Whiting
Rec Secy

Third Regular Meeting
Santa Fe New Mexico
Monday Evening
March 26, 1860

The Society was called to order at the appointed time, The President in the Chair.

The minutes of the last regular meeting and of the special meeting held on the evening of March 8th were read and approved.

Applications for membership were received from Col. B.L.E. Bonneville, Hon. Sylvester Mowry, Col. Ceran St. Vrain, and Messrs. F.W. Jones and R.G. Campbell.

The following persons were elected members of this Society, viz:
Rev. R. Medina Messrs. Ambrosio Armijo
  “   J. Salpointe   “   Donaciano Vigil
  “   J.L. Truchard        E. Brevoort
Lieut. L.W. OBannon        L. Gold
  “   R. Jones        F.P. Abreu
Messrs. J. Amberg        A.H. Pfeiffer
  “   F.L. Russ        José L. Perea
       S. Rosenstein        P.J. Eyre
       A. DeMarle        Jos. Nangle
       Wendel Debus        E.T. Bucknam
       J.W. Dunn        W Zeckendorf
       Juan Perea        S.A. Hubbell

The application of C. Rite, was not acted upon, there being no one present willing to vouch for him.

The Amendment offered to the Constitution at the last meeting was taken up and on motion, unanimously adopted.

The Committee of Arrangements submitted the following report, which was ordered to be filed, viz:

Rooms of the Hist. Soc. of N. M.
Santa Fe March 26, 1860

The Committee of Arrangements begs leave, respectfully to report,

That 200 Copies of the Constitution and By Laws in English, two Receipt Books and one Warrant Book have been received from St. Louis, the cost, and transportation by overland mail amounting to $100.00. Twenty five copies of the Constitution and By Laws bound in calf, and gilt were received and the Committee took the responsibility of disposing of them to those members who desired copies, at $1.50 ea. in aid of the payment of the bill. Sixteen copies have thus been disposed of.

The Committee has also ordered from Knapp & Co. two hundred blank certificates of membership.
W.J. Sloan Chairman
Corr. Sec.

Baldwin Mollhausen, and Dr. Livingstone were elected Corresponding members of this Society.

...The Society then, on motion adjourned.
David V. Whiting
Recording Secretary

Fourth Regular Meeting
Santa Fe New Mexico
April 30, 1860

The Society was called to order at the appointed hour. The President in the Chair.

The minutes of the last stated meeting were read and approved. Applications for membership were received from Messrs. Wm. M. Moore, B.L. Rees and J.G. Marsh, which under the rule lie over until the next regular meeting.

Col. B.L.E. Bonneville, Hon. S. Mowry, Col. Ceran St. Vrain and Messrs. R. G. Campbell and F.W. Jones, were elected members of the Society.

The President announced the following appointments of Sections viz:

Section 1st-History  
Hon. K. Benedict J.G. Gallegos
Hon. S.M. Baird Serafin Ramirez
Donaciano Vigil C.P. Clever
Bishop Lamy A. De Marie
Major J. L. Donaldson  

Section 2d-Geography  
W.A. Street J.M. Giddings
D.V. Whiting R. Jones U.S.A.
J. M. Sena y Baca Ambrosio Armijo
R.F. Green  

Section 3d-Indian Races  
J.L. Collins Dr. M. Steck
Rev. S. Gorman A.H. Pfeiffer
Rev. R. Medina José L. Perea
John Ward  

Section 4th-Geology and Mineralogy  
R.A. Wainwright U.S.A E. Brevoort
I.A. Hill Dr. S. A. Boice
L. Felsenthal Rev. Thos. A. Hayes
Wm. Zeckendorf W.J. Howard

Section 5th Antiquities and Collections  
M. Schwartzkopf Dr. Jos. Nangle
J.B. Grayson Dr. Jos. Nangle
W.A. Bransfor D.B. Koch

Section 6th-Natural History  
Lieut. J. D. Wilkins G. H. Child
D. Hood Rev. J. Salpointe
A. Zeckendorf J.J. Eyre
Lt. R V. Bonneau Juan C. Tapia

Section 7th Agriculture  
F. Delgado A.P. Wilbar
J.M. Gallegos E.T. Bucknam
A.J. Otero L.W. OBannon
S.A. Hubbell  

Section 8th Statistics  
O.P. Hovey W. Debus
S.K. Hodges J.H. Watts
J.W. Dunn C. Blumner
S. Rosenstein  

Section 9th Botany  
Lieut. W.H. Bell B. Seligman
H. Ruhe L. Gold
Col. J.B. Grayso Rev. J. Trouchard
R.E. Clements W.J. Sloan

Section 10th Biography  
J. Houghton F.P. Abreu
W.H. Brooks J. Amberg
M. Ashurst Juan Perea
Dr. J.M. Whitlock  

Section llth Meteorology and Climatology  
Lieut. O.G. Wagner Z. Staab
Geo. T. Beall F. Metzgar
F.L. Russ Col. J.B. Grayson

The Curator and Librarian submitted the following Report, which was ordered to be filed, viz:

Santa Fe New Mexico
April 17th, 1860

From Col. J. B. Grayson U. S. A. an admirable Melainotype likeness of himself as first President of the Historical Society of New Mexico...

...I Kindly tender you my resignation...
Very Respectfully submitted
W. J. Howard

The resignation tendered with the above report was accepted.

Lieuts. J. D. Wilkins, L. W. O'Bannon and R. Jones and I. A. Hill tendered their resignations as members of this Society all of which were accepted.

...Lieuts. J. D. Wilkins, R. Jones, and L. W. OBannon, and I. A. Hill Esq. were elected Corresponding members of this Society.

The Society then, on motion, adjourned.
David V. Whiting

Note: the Society suspended it activities in 1863

New Mexico Office of the Sate Historian

Fairview Cemetery by Corinne P. Sze
"Long-time Catron enemy, Democrat J. A Crist, as district attorney in the Governor Thornton administration, led the 1895 prosecution of the Borrego brothers and others for the political murder of Sheriff Silvestre Gallegos. Represented by T. B. Catron, the defendants were convicted and hanged in Santa Fe. At the conclusion of the trial, Crist pursued an unsuccessful disbarment effort against Catron.(99)"
Westphall, Thomas Benton Catron and his Era pp.208-268.

5th Legislative Assembly, 1855 House member - Jose Guadalupe Gallegos of San Miguel County
8th Legislative Assembly, 1858 HOUSE SPEAKER — Jose G. Gallegos of San Miguel County
9th Legislative Assembly, 1859 COUNCIL PRESIDENT — Jose G. Gallegos of San Miguel County
10th Legislative Assembly, 1860 COUNCIL PRESIDENT — Jose G. Gallegos of San Miguel County

NM Railway Company, Relevant Documents
The Credit Mobilier of America: its origin and history... by Jay Boyd Crawford
The Miscellaneous Documents of the House of Representatives, Printed During the First Session of the Thirty-Sixth Congress. 1859-'60 p.437
• New Mexican Railway Company. (To accompany Bill H.R. No. 761.) Memorial of the New Mexican Railway Company, in relation to the Pacific railroad. May 21, 1860.
• Origins of the Credit Mobilier of America from The Mississippi Valley Historical Review (1959) 46(2): 238-251
Report of the Select Committee of the House of Representatives, appointed under the resolution of January 6, 1873, inquiry... Union Pacific Railroad Company, the Credit Mobilier of America...

History of New Mexico: its resources and people, Volume 2 by George B. Anderson, Pacific States Publishing Co.

A large number of railroad companies have been incorporated in New Mexico, the majority of which have transacted little business beyond the filing of their papers with the secretary of the Territory. Some of these companies were little better than blackmailing schemes. Others were promoted by men who may have had serious hopes of building roads some time or other. Two railroad comapanies that proved nothing better than "bluffs" were the following:

January 16, 1882. were filed with the secretary of the Territory papers of incorporation of the New Mexican Railroad. The capital stock was $37,000,000, of which $1,455,800 was then reported to have been subscribed. The incorporators were Henry L. Waldo and W. W. Griffin, of Santa Fe; F. A. Manzanares, of Las Vegas; C. C. Wheeler, Albert A. Robinson, George R. Peck, Edward Wilder, A. S. Johnson, Topeka, Kan.; W. B. Strong, I. T. Burr and Alden Speare, of Boston. The principal office was located at Santa Fe. Fifteen different routes were covered, embracing nearly all the settled portion of New Mexico. February 6, 1882, the El Paso & White Oaks Railroad Company was incorporated, with these incorporators... Capital Stock, $2,000,000: $144,000 was then reported as subscribed. Road ran from... a distance of 144 miles.

A complete list of various railroad companies, including those now in operation, follows:

Created by special act of legislature: Atlantic & Pacific Railroad Company, chartered January 24, 1857; amount of capital stock or life of charter not given. Kansas, New Mexico, Arizona & California Railroad and Telegraph Company, chartered December 30, 1863, with $50,000 capital stock. New Mexican Railroad [should be “Railway”] Company, chartered February 2, 1860; capital stock $500,000.

These roads chartered under the general incorporation laws, with the place of business, dates of filing of their certificates and capital stock, were: ...[alphabetical list follows, including NM Railroad, not NM Railway]

New Mexican Railroad Company, Santa Fe, January 16, 1882, $37,000,000.

The total number of railroads chartered to transact business in New Mexico, including those which had previously been incororated in another state or territory, has been one hudred and fifty four, and the sum total of authorized capital stock of all these corporations was $1,218,234,000.

A corporation styled "The New Mexico Telegraph Company" was authorized by act of the legislature in 1867. The incorporators named in the charter were Theodore Adams, Thomas Wilson, Lucien Scott, John D. Perry, Miguel E. Pino, Francisco Perea, Charles B. Morehead, Jr., Miguel A. Otero, Thomas Carney, Ambrosio Armijo and their associates. The company was organized for the purpose of "buying, building, owning and operating a telegraph line from some point within a state or territory lying east of the Rocky mountains to Santa Fe and such other points as the said company may desire." This was the first telegraph company chartered in New Mexico. It was permitted to have a capital stock of $2,000,000. The act was repealed January 18, 1868.

The New Mexico Volunteers in the American Civil War 1861-1862
by David Poulin @ Sociedad de la Entrada

*RegsOut p.21
Lincoln and his cabinet were a good deal more concerned with Confederate developments in the East rather than the West or even the Midwest. Richmond was only a few miles away from Washington. They had to recruit volunteers, consolidate the Regular Army, stockpile clothing, equipment, arms, ammunition, food, medicines. It was a monumental task and everyone knew the war would be won or lost there, in the East. New Mexico was a remote concern as well an irritation, detracting from more important concerns. And where and what was New Mexico anyway? The inhabitants, ”were dismissed as troublesome Mexicans who contributed nothing to the country and whose constant need for protection from the Indians was a costly bother and burden.” When queried about supporting southern New Mexico against a possible invasion, Simon Cameron, the Secretary of War, replied, “measures have been or will be taken commensurate with its importance.” Not a week later, most of the Regulars were ordered to move east. Unlike the Unionists the Confederates were much more interested in New Mexico.
footnote: Alvin M. Josephy Jr., The Civil War in the American West (Vintage Books, 1991), 390, footnote 20.

In addition to Loring, one third of the U.S. Army officers in service resigned from their commands and moved to join the Confederacy, an act which most of the remaining loyal troops considered to be desertion and betrayal. The effect of this on the morale of the remaining troops was nearly devastating. Along with Crittenden and Loring Major Henry Hopkins Sibley, Major James Longstreet, Captains Trichard S. Ewell, Cadmus M. Wilcox, Carter L. Stevenson, and Lieutenant Joseph Wheeler resigned and traveled south or east. Each one of them would become a general in the Confederate Army. “We were being deserted by our officers,” complained one man who remained loyal. “We were practically an army without officers.” With all the gaps in leadership the morale of the troops plummeted.
footnote: Josephy, American West, 34.

“The treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo [in 1848] provided that residents could choose: leave New Mexico entirely, or remain by declaring their preference of citizenship – Mexico or the United States.”106 About 1,500-2,000 citizens chose to become Mexican and were relocated with aid from the Mexican Government to Chihuahua and southern New Mexico, which was still part of Mexico at the time. The remainder had decided to become Americans, and after that, New Mexicans did not consider themselves to be anything but Americans. But Americans did not think of them the same way – to them, they were still ‘Mexicans’ and were not even considered to be citizens.
In 1848 companies from Taos under Captains Marcial Tafoya and José María Valdéz went out after the Utes and Jicarrilla Apaches in June and July. After that, in the Spring of 1849 three more companies campaigned against the Navajos; guided by Captains John Chapman and Henry L. Dodge of Santa Fe, and Captain A. L. Papin of San Miguel. Two years later, two more battalions were organized against Apaches in 1851-52 and again in 1854. These battalions were commanded by Brigadier Generals José María Chaves and Manuel Herrera. But except for use as auxiliaries and guides, the army was more than reluctant to accept them as equals. Eventually, by 1855, Ute and Comanche depredations forced the U.S. Army to admit that it needed the New Mexico Militia, not just in defense of their own communities, but rather to assist the Regulars on campaign against the hostiles. They had done so before in smaller capacities as guides, but this time they were considered additional troops. Governor David Meriwether authorized the organization of a battalion of mounted militia.
The volunteers were not to be paid but they would be armed and supplied by the army. The battalion was to be commanded by
Ceran St. Vrain. Ten companies were raised; two were posted on the frontier to protect vulnerable towns and four companies were sent on campaign in Colorado. The other four companies probably did garrison or escort duty for the Army. The company captains were Charles Deus of Santa Fe, Miguel E. Pino also of Santa Fe, José María Valdéz from Mora, Antonio María Vigil of Abiquiu, Pedro León Luján also of Abiquiu, William S. Cunningham from Santa Fe, Charles Williams of Taos, Francisco Gonzáles also of Taos, and Manuel A. Chaves from Santa Fe 107 Manuel Chaves became the captain of Company D, and Rafael Chacón served as the First Sergeant of Company B. Albert Pfeiffer served as a lieutenant. It must be noted here that the volunteers were not all Hispanic. A few were Americans, but in addition, a sizable number of men were Pueblo Indians. The Puebloans had traditionally served as allies and auxiliaries to the Spanish and then to the Mexicans in defense of the province, and they continued this practice into the American period up to and including the Civil War.
footnote: New Mexico Adjutant General Records 1847-1911;

However, in New Mexico, not only were the volunteers anti-Texan to a man, they had been on at least one campaign, and many of them had been on several. Their officers were very experienced, Hispanics and Whites, mountain men, ciboleros (buffalo hunters), comancheros (Indian traders), rancheros, and freighters; men like Ceran St. Vrain, Kit Carson, Miguel Pino, Nicholás Pino, Manuel Chaves, José Francisco Chaves, Santiago (James) Hubbell, William Mortimore, José María Valdez, Rafael Chacón, and many others. They knew their troops, and the lay of the land, and the habits of the hostile natives as well. They were formidable allies, who had often guided, aided, and out-performed the Federals.

On May 4th, 1861, General Order No. 15 called for the mustering of 39 companies of New Mexico Volunteers, but it was not until June 16th that Canby was finally awakened from his confusion and indecision by another order from headquarters which required that the U.S. Regular Army troops leave the Territory.
June 1861: At this time Brevet Lt. Col. Edward Canby did not know the disposition of the Confederates in Texas. He had heard the rumors of preparations for a Texan invasion. But as to when they would attack, and from which direction, he couldn’t be sure, and because of this, he could not concentrate his troops in any specific area. If it came from the northeast, Fort Union would be the best base of operations, if from the east, he would concentrate his forces in Albuquerque, from the southeast, Fort Stanton, and from the south, Fort Fillmore. He needed scouts in many different locations. In attempting to detail his troops for that duty, Canby quickly realized he didn’t have enough men to garrison the forts, keep the Santa Fe Trail open, guard against the Navajo and Apaches, and scout for Texans – and the situation was about to become more complicated. He needed volunteers.
...On June 18 Captain Shoemaker, in charge of the Ordnance Depot at Fort Union, replied to a query from Canby regarding how many volunteers he could arm. Shoemaker reported that he had enough arms and equipment for two regiments although some of it was “old and outdated.”
footnote: Shoemaker to Anderson 6/18/61, Official Records.
A few days later, Canby’s Acting Adjutant, 2nd Lt. A. L. Anderson in Santa Fe, ordered Major Chapman at Fort Union to “organize a small party of spies for the purpose of watching the road from Fort Smith to Anton Chico, and another to watch the country east of Fort Union and south of the road to the crossing of the Arkansas.” In the same letter Chapman noted that two companies of the 5th US Infantry were moving from Fort Fauntleroy [located west of Albuquerque near Cubero], one company to Albuquerque and one to Fort Union. In addition, he was sending a small group of Native Americans, presumably Pueblo Indians, to Fort Union. “Three or four Indians will be sent from this place to Lieutenant Walker's party, at Hatch's ranch, to be used for the same purpose as those you are authorized to employ.” At last, Canby felt he had enough preparation to request volunteers from Governor Abraham Rencher. He called for three companies of volunteers on June 20th “to aid in the protection of the eastern frontier of this territory and guarding the trains on the routes from the Arkansas to this department.” This order was in conformance with Order No. 15, May 4, 1861. Governor Rencher immediately sought out Ceran St. Vrain and, appointing him the rank of Colonel of Volunteers, asked him to muster a regiment. ...In 1827 Ceran began trapping furs and in 1830 became a trading partner with brothers Charles and William Bent. They owned a trading post called Fort William near present day Pueblo, Colorado, and Bent’s Fort near the main fords on the Arkansas River. In Taos they ran a trading post, sponsored trapping expeditions, and were involved in the Santa Fe trade. Ceran and Charles became brothers-in-law when they married sisters. Charles Bent had also become the first American civilian Governor of New Mexico, but he was killed during the 1846-47 Rebellion. As noted before, Ceran was a well known militia leader, first as a captain of a company of mounted volunteers during the Taos Rebellion. Then he served as Colonel of a ten-company battalion of mounted volunteers in 1855. St. Vrain welcomed his good friend and other brother in law, Christopher ‘Kit’ Carson, to be his second in command with the rank of Lt. Colonel. ...In 1842 he [Carson] became a guide for John C. Fremont on his famous trek to California and when he returned to Taos the next year he married a [his] third wife, Josepha Jaramillo of Taos. St. Vrain, Bent, and Carson had all married one of each of three Jaramillo sisters, so the three families were very close. ...Kit [Carson] was appointed by President Lincoln to be a Lt. Colonel of Mounted Volunteers on May 27, 1861, as was reported in the New York Daily Herald on the following 6th of June. ...He [Carson] spoke Spanish fluently but often had to search for the right word in English. He also spoke several Indian languages. What struck people the most about him, was his straightforwardness, courage, and honesty. Major José Francisco Chaves was selected as third in command. ...Francisco’s family was well-known through-out the province as his father had served a term as governor during the Mexican period. ...Francisco studied at St. Louis University and therefore could speak English very well. He went on to study medicine for two years at the New York College of Physicians and Surgeons... He was a soldier in various volunteer campaigns against the hostile natives, had been wounded in battle, and he served as a Captain of New Mexico Volunteers during the Navajo campaign of 1859-1860 under Lt. Colonel Manuel Chaves. While away on this campaign he was elected to his first term as a representative to the New Mexico Council... Chaves was appointed directly by President Lincoln as a Major of Volunteers.

Also on the 20th of June Canby penned another letter to Headquarters in Washington D.C. outlining his problems in the defense of New Mexico. He wrote that he needed to garrison outlying Forts in order to protect the Territory from Indian hostilities; he had to defend from invasion as well as guard the Santa Fe Trail, the “communications with the east.” He stressed the need for Regular troops as the garrisoning of important locations should not be left “entirely to new and undisciplined troops.” He requested that his department be allowed to keep one regiment of Regular infantry and one of cavalry (10 companies each) in addition to the volunteers that were to be raised. He also asked Washington to consider the possibility of recruiting troops from Colorado. He rightly suggested that mounted New Mexican volunteers would serve very well as escorts, spies, and scouts. He also noted that he had only two 24 pound howitzers available for service but the carriages were in disrepair. Then he asked Governor Rencher for more troops, eight more companies, in fact. Four foot companies were to report to Albuquerque, two companies, one foot and one mounted to Fort Craig, and two more of the same to Fort Stanton.

On the same day, the 23rd of June, Ceran St. Vrain left Santa Fe to take up his new post at Fort Union. Anderson informed Brevet Lieut. Col. Chapman, the commander of Fort Union, that Colonel St. Vrain would go on recruiting detail to gather the companies of his regiment, which were to muster at Fort Union.
footnote: John P. Wilson, When the Texans Came (University of New Mexico Press, 2001), Anderson to Chapman 6/23/61, 55.
...Two days later, Anderson wrote to Captain R. M. Morris, Company F, 7th US Infantry, at Fort Craig notifying him that he would receive two companies of volunteers, one mounted and one foot. This letter is notable because it gives details related to the mustering of the volunteers. He was to receive one company of foot (three years) and one of independent mounted volunteers (three months) under Robert H. Stapleton in the near future. Col. M. E. Pino “will designate the foot company,” which would become one of the companies of the 2nd New Mexico Volunteers (NMVI). ...The volunteers were to be “armed and equipped for immediate service,” including “camp and garrison equipage,” but uniforms would not. His company and the two of Volunteers would form the garrison of the Fort. The arms most of the foot volunteers would receive were surplus .69 caliber smoothbore muskets [converted from flintlocks to percussion caplocks during the 1850s] left over from the Mexican War.

In the next few days Canby ordered the authorization of additional volunteer companies, two at Fort Stanton and two at Fort Fauntleroy, one foot and one mounted at each location. Then on the 30th of June he ordered William Chapman at Fort Union to organize one hundred Regulars and two companies of Volunteers for the purpose of protecting the supply wagons which were expected to be on their way to Fort Union from the east. This was a problem for Chapman since no volunteer companies had arrived at the fort yet. Chapman was a longtime veteran who had served in the US Army for 25 years. He did not like the New Mexicans whom he thought were only good for patrolling and digging. There would be no love lost between him and the Volunteers to whom he would come to be known as ‘El Viejo,’ the old man; and friction soon developed with the volunteer officers that would stick with him throughout his command at the fort. Captain Duncan of the US Mounted Rifles (3rd US Cavalry Regiment) was to be in charge of the expedition. Thomas Duncan appears to have had a completely different opinion of the New Mexicans as he never wrote of them in negative terms. The patrol would take thirty days rations and move with as little equipage as possible. ...Then Canby... wrote another letter to Washington DC indicating that the Texans would positively attack in the near future and that he was concentrating forces at Fort Fillmore. ...He worried that the Texans might attack from the east and northeast and that he was making preparations to guard against that liability.

...on the 1st of July, Colonel Chapman received the first company of New Mexican Volunteers to report for duty. They had been recruited by St. Vrain who lived and owned a grist mill there. They were 89 men from the town of Mora and José María Valdez was their captain. Valdez was also a brother-in-law of St. Vrain as he had married one of the famous Jaramillo sisters, Manuela. Since the men had all brought their own horses this company was mounted. So it happened that the first volunteer company to report for duty in the Territory was from Mora, the town that had been attacked by Texans in 1843. They became Company A of the First New Mexico Volunteer Infantry. Captain Valdez was 48 years old... In 1848 he served against the Jicarilla Apaches as captain of a company from Taos County. In 1854 he led a forty man mounted company from Mora that assisted Major William Grierson of the 1st US Dragoons in a campaign also against the Jicarillas. In the 1855 campaign he was again commanding a company, also from Mora. ...Valdez also had served as Prefect of Taos County in 1848 and again in 1850. Mora did not organize its own county until 1860 when it became separate from Taos. Now Valdez was at Fort Union, again reporting for duty. Unfortunately they had expected to receive uniforms and gear fit for campaign duty. Disappointed, they had to go home and outfit themselves. This was to be the first of many disappointments. On July 2, Captain Arthur Morris [Morrison] brought in another company, ninety-one men from Las Vegas.” Captain Morrison’s unit became Company B of the 1st Regiment. This company was on foot.

It is a singular fact that ancient Roman military commanders wisely employed their newly conquered or allied auxiliary troops to fight in the manner to which they were most accustomed. That is, they did not try to ‘Romanize’ their style of fighting, but allowed them to fight in the way they were used to. For example, in those days the Romans fought on foot as infantry in tight formations. They often employed auxiliaries as archers, slingers, and cavalry. They did not have Roman mounted troops in any numbers until after Caesar’s time. Curiously enough, the most common mounted auxiliaries they employed were from Spain. After the Roman Empire fell, and throughout the following Dark/Medieval Ages, the Spanish kept their tradition of fighting from horseback. But unlike the rest of Europe being a caballero (knight) was not contingent on noble birth, therefore, even the less wealthy were accustomed to fighting on horseback, usually ‘a la jinete,’ skirmishing as individuals. And when they came to the New World the caballeros came with them; this tradition was the backbone of New Mexico’s defense throughout its long existence. The insight of President Lincoln and the authorities in Washington D.C. is indicated by the fact that they also were aware of the mounted capabilities of the Hispanic volunteers; a fact which Canby did not seem to fully appreciate. His strategy was completely the opposite. He wanted to employ the New Mexicans in stationary garrisons, on foot, behind defensive works. He would only use a few mounted troops for scouting and escort. Canby failed to grasp that the Spanish in New Mexico had always deployed in defense of their homes in the form of mounted troops, almost never behind fortified works unless it was totally necessary. It was not their preferred style. Moreover, more often than not, they had won their punitive conflicts with the natives. Many of the American veterans of the Mexican War had made favorable comments on the fabulous riding abilities of the Mexicans. Nevertheless, according to Canby’s plan, the formation of the two infantry regiments continued. In addition to fighting as infantry, it was difficult for New Mexicans to understand why they must join the army for three years. Most family men couldn’t make a commitment like that. They were used to banding together as militia during emergencies but not for serving for such a long time, normally a few weeks to three months at most. On the same day, July 3, 1861, Company C reported for muster at Fort Union under the command of twenty-nine year old Captain Francisco S. Abréu of Santa Fe. His father was Don Santiago Abréu who had died defending Governor Pérez during the 1837 rebellion. Santiago himself had served as Governor from 1831 to 1833. Francisco was the brother of Jesús G. Abréu who had received a substantial gift of land including the village of Rayado from his brother-inlaw, Lucien Maxwell. Lucien had inherited the 1.7 million acre land grant from his father-in-law, Charles Baubien, a French Canadian who had moved into Taos in 1823 and started a supply store. Kit Carson’s ranch, which is now part of the Philmont Boy Scout Ranch, also came from a portion of this land grant. ...It is certain that Francisco was also steeped in Indian fighting. Like Company B his men were on foot.

At this early stage, each state was responsible for the cost of mustering, arming, and clothing its own volunteers. ...New Mexico’s treasury was empty. Moreover, Canby had no money either. Many of the Regulars had not been paid in a long time and the Army owed money to a lot of people for supplies and support. Since volunteering wasn’t moving fast enough for him, Canby put into motion the enforced roundup of the New Mexico Militia troops by means of armed coercion. Lt. Col. Roberts wrote to Col. R. H. Stapleton (of the N. M. Militia): “If any of the Officers or Soldiers of the Militia, called into service under your orders from your immediate commanding general, refuses to obey your call, I am instructed to send you Military force to compel their obedience, but it is hoped there are no New Mexicans so ignoble in their natures as to refuse to respond to this call of duty to defend their Territory and their homes.” The Militia was considered a separate organization from the Volunteers; they were to be recruited in the manner in which they had been mustered to meet various Indian crisis. Unlike the volunteers, the militiamen would not be paid or clothed and would receive no compensation for the use of their own horses. By any Union states’ standards, it was a raw deal. On the same day, July 4th, 1861, the fourth company of volunteers was mustered in at Fort Union. This was Company D commanded by Captain Julian Espinosa, whose men were mounted. They were closely followed by another foot company on the 6th. This became Company E, led by Captain Albert Pfeifer. ...a Taos trapper, guide, and mountain man. He had served as a lieutenant in St. Vrain’s battalion in 1855-56. His body was covered by many battle scars and he once fought on after being pierced completely through by an arrow. Carson, St. Vrain, and Bent knew him well. ...Like Carson, he once was employed as an Indian agent for the Utes so they were both well-known and trusted by the Utes.

on the 21st [July], Anderson sent Chapman news that, “One or possibly two parties of Pueblo Indians will be sent out to you in two or three days. They are represented to be reliable and well acquainted with the country east and south of your post.” That day Anderson wrote another letter to Chapman that the Regular Dragoons at Hatche’s Ranch would be relieved by Captain Antonio María Vigil’s independent company of mounted volunteers. He added that Canby desired that “a volunteer command of three or four infantry companies may be held in readiness,” to sent out on the Santa Fe trail to protect wagon supply trains, and Lt. Col. Carson would be in charge of this group.

[July 21st] Confederate Col. John R. Baylor moved up from Fort Bliss to surprise Lynde at Fort Fillmore. ...On the 27th Lynde decided to give up the Post without a fight and retreat through the desert to Fort Stanton, but the movement was so disorganized the troops ended up surrendering piecemeal to the few Confederates that followed them. Apparently, rumors of whiskey in their canteens were true. ...Yet, in spite of these events, Canby continued to believe that his Regulars were his mainstay and the Volunteers would not be useful. He reported to Army headquarters in St. Louis that the Texans had occupied Mesilla and after Major Lynde’s troops had failed to dislodge them, he had abandoned Fort Fillmore “and on the 27th surrendered his entire command (about 500 men) to an inferior force of Texans.” He refrained from making any comment on this action since there would be a judicial inquiry. And in a following paragraph he wrote, “…It soon became apparent that the volunteer forces could not be relied on for the defense of this Territory, unless supported by a considerable force of regular troops.” ...He seems to be implying that since the Regulars had failed the Volunteers were now proven to be unreliable. ...He sent orders to Chapman at Fort Union to begin building fortifications, and to Roberts to do the same at Fort Craig. Meanwhile, amidst the dramatic events occurring in the southern part of the state, Christopher ‘Kit’ Carson was sworn in as a Lt. Colonel of Volunteers on the 25th of July at Fort Union – a quiet but momentous event for the First Volunteer Regiment.
footnote: National Archives, Compiled Service Records, E522 U5 Roll 23.

To try to stem the general feelings of dismay and near panic among the people of New Mexico, Governor Rencher wrote a proclamation on July 26 to “…call upon all good and loyal citizens to uphold the authority of the laws and to defend the Territory against invasion and violence from whatever quarter they may come from.” On the 28th Lt. E. Gay, still at his camp near Hatches Ranch reported to Chapman at Fort Union regarding the Pueblo scouts he had sent out. They had found a Comanche camp on the Canadian River, the inhabitants of which informed them that, “they did not wish any more war with Troops or Mexicans and that they would observe the treaty hereafter.” ...His [Canby's] writings were geared toward retaining his Regulars to ‘save the day,’ since the volunteers could not do it. He reported that the Regulars were “being withdrawn as rapidly as the circumstances of the country and the slow organization of the volunteers will permit.” ...he expected that the 1st Volunteer Regiment (six foot companies and four mounted) would be ready to march by the middle of August.

In the last two days of July, two more captains of the 1st Regiment and their companies mustered into service: Captain Louis Felsenthal’s Company G on the 30th, and Captain Santiago Valdez at the head of Company H on the 31st. If the other captains were traders, rum-runners, mountain men, ciboleros, and rancheros, Louis Felthensal was from the other end of the spectrum. He was a clerk... for the Territorial Council (the state legislature), and he also became a founding member of the Historical Society of New Mexico at this time. ...He was fluent in several languages including Spanish which must have greatly aided him in command of a company of Hispanic volunteers. As the war seemed imminent Felsenthal applied for a Captaincy and was accepted. His troops were recruited from the Santa Fe area. He seems to have adapted well to his new task...On the 1st of August Col. Baylor in Mesilla made a proclamation declaring that all of New Mexico, which also included the present state of Arizona, below the 34th parallel would now become the new Confederate Territory of Arizona.

On August 2nd Lt. Col Roberts received news of Lynde’s surrender and he began preparations for abandoning Fort Stanton. He set fire to the fort but heavy rain quelled the fires. ...Local New Mexicans moved into the fort as soon as the Federals left...the Confederates were easily able to remove the occupants and recover most of the goods. Confederate Captain Walker and his company moved into an intact fort with most of the supplies still available, including cannons. The US Regulars were still supplying the enemy with materiel.

on the 2nd of August Canby called on Governor Rencher for a battalion of four more companies of mounted volunteers under the command of a Lt. Colonel to serve for three years. ...Chapman, like Canby, also felt strongly that the Volunteers would not hold up in a fight without fortifications. Echoing Canby’s opinion, he stipulated that, “These Mexican volunteers are more afraid of the Texans than they are of death, and in case of an attack by the latter, I cannot rely upon them.” In his mind they wouldn’t fight anyway, but they could dig and possibly fight behind defensive works. Regardless of Chapman’s opinion the New Mexicans would be tested in time. As can be noted in many correspondences, the US officers can hardly be cited as authorities on what the New Mexicans were thinking. To be fair, the New Mexicans must have met the insulting attitude of the Regulars with their own form of abrasiveness. Some of it was Regulars versus Volunteers, and some of it was Hispanos versus Gringos, the rest of it was a pastoral society versus an industrial one. ...the Volunteers would be doing a lot more digging than [military] drilling. On the 3rd of August Lt. Col. Carson assumed command of Camp Chapman, the camp of Volunteers.
footnote:National Archives, Compiled Service Records, E522 U5 Roll 23.

Captain Charles Deus, in charge of Company I which was mounted, mustered in his men on the 4th of August. Deus was forty–five years old. He had come to New Mexico as a Private in Fischer’s Company of Hassendeubel’s Missouri Volunteers in August of 1846. He served with Fischer for the next two years, until August, 1848; therefore he was with the company during the Taos Rebellion. ...He did militia work when he commanded a company during the Apache crisis of 1855 under Ceran St. Vrain, so it was only natural that he would join with St. Vrain again. Only one more company was needed to fill out the First Regiment.

A more immediate problem than clothing for some of the volunteers was how to feed their families who had come to live with them at Fort Union. It was a common practice for Mexican women to follow their men – most of them were safer there than they were at home. Fearing imminent desertions, Canby authorized that rations could be issued to the families, the cost would be deducted from the soldier’s pay. On August 8th, Canby issued a circular to the effect that the Territory was under martial law (pretty much the same as the rest of the Union at this time). “The writ of habeas corpus has been suspended in order to enable every commander to guard against the treasonable designs of persons disloyal to the Government of the United States, particularly agents and spies, persons engaged in furnishing information to, or in other treasonable correspondence with, the enemy, or in inciting insurrection or rebellion.”

Fearing an imminent Confederate assault, Canby [August 10th?] ordered that the women and children at Fort Union be removed to Mora or Las Vegas if the Fort was attacked. Col. St. Vrain reported that the women and children could be housed at Mora in an emergency. St. Vrain maintained his home and grist mill there and was very familiar with the community.

At last, the muster of the ten companies of the First Regiment New Mexico Volunteer Infantry was complete on the 13th of August, 1861, at Fort Union, with the induction of Captain Rafael Chacón’s Company K. Rafael was the son of Presidio Captain Albino Chacón. At a very early age he was sent to Chihuahua to study at a military academy. And therefore, at the age of thirteen, he found himself in command of a gun crew at Apache Canon in 1846 before Armijo dispersed the militia. Later, he served in Colonel St. Vrain’s battalion in the 1855 Ute/Apache war as First Sergeant of Company B. Now, at the age of thirty, he found himself a captain in the US Army. His company was fully mounted, much of it at his own expense. Some of the men did not have horses or the full purchase price for one, so he purchased horses at Mora, which his soldiers were to pay back to him from their wages. ...Four of the regiment’s companies were mounted and six were on foot.

Sometime in July, the 2nd Regiment of New Mexico Volunteer Infantry also began recruiting. Colonel Miguel Estanislado Pino was appointed commander. ...His parents were Don Pedro Bautista Pino and María Baca. His father had represented New Mexico in the Spanish parliament. During that time, he had written The Exposition on the Province of New Mexico, 1812, which was first published in Cádiz, Spain, in that year. Like Manuel Chaves and his brother, Nicholas, Miguel was involved in the Santa Fe conspiracy against the Americans in 1846, but after the plot was discovered they all swore allegiance to the United States. Miguel had served in the New Mexico militia all his life. He was a Captain in St. Vrain’s battalion in 1855, a Colonel of a battalion in 1860, and currently was appointed a Colonel of Volunteers by President Lincoln. His brother, Nicholás de Jesús Pino, who was two years older than he, would become Colonel of the 2nd New Mexico Militia. The eldest of the three brothers, Facundo Pino, was at this time the President of the Territorial Council. Miguel Pino selected his old comrade in arms, Manuel A. Chaves, as his second in command with the rank of Lt. Colonel. The Major of the regiment, third in command, was Jesús M. Baca y Salazar who was a good friend of Rafael Chacón. ...On the 1st of August Lt. Col. Chaves reported for duty at the army post in Albuquerque where the regiment was based. ...Chaves’ first assignment would be as commander at Fort Fauntleroy, located at Cubero, sixty miles west of Albuquerque. Because Col. Fauntleroy had turned out to be a Confederate the Fort was officially renamed Fort Lyon.

Throughout early August, enrollment of the volunteers continued and despite Canby’s incessant worrying, volunteer companies were rolling in. So much so that on August 13, 1861, Anderson reported to Chapman at Fort Union that a third regiment of New Mexico volunteers would now begin recruiting: “Sir: I am instructed to inform you that the Governor has appointed José Guadalupe Gallegos of San Miguel, Lt. Colonel, José María Chaves of Abiquiu, Lieut. Colonel, Manuel Baca of Socorro and Joseph Cummings of Santa Fe, Majors of the Regiment of New Mexican Mounted Volunteers.”
Wilson, When the Texans Came, Chapman to Anderson 8/13/61, 78.
Strangely enough, none of these three men, Col. José María Chaves, Major Manuel Baca, or Major Joseph Cummings, are listed in the enlistment records for the Third Regiment of volunteers. Possibly this was either a militia unit, or it was the early command structure of the Third Regiment and it was reorganized later. Some of Canby’s later remarks seem to support this.

On August 30th the Third New Mexico Regiment began recruitment. This new regiment would consist of mounted volunteers. There was some confusion at the time as to whether this regiment would be called the Third Regiment or the 1st Regiment of Mounted Volunteers. The designation as the Third Regiment eventually won out. This regiment was commanded by Colonel José Guadalupe Gallegos, Lt. Col. José María Valdez, and Major Luis Baca, Later, Major Faustino Baca y Ulibarri. Now there occurred something that fully illustrates the preference of the New Mexicans. Canby couldn’t fill out the Second Infantry Regiment and the First still needed some recruits. He thought the New Mexicans were just being totally unpatriotic, but then he called for the Third Regiment to be mounted. It was originally intended to have only four companies but so many men joined that it soon had eight and finally ended up with a full ten…and this occurred in a very short time. Keep in mind that almost half of the First Regiment was mounted and several companies of the Second were unofficially mounted also. Following this, it soon became obvious that another mounted regiment, the Fourth, could also begin recruitment.

The situation of the inferior equipment and uniforms was aggravating the already strained relations between the Volunteers and the Regulars, and partial issue or no equipment at all was even worse. It is remarkable that the Volunteers endured all the shortages of rations and equipment, clothing and pay, not to mention the racial castigation quite patiently. But things were getting a bit thin in the Third Regiment - even they had limits. When Governor Rencher and his party, including his family, arrived at Fort Union he presented his orders to be furnished with “transportation and the Necessary Camp Equipage….and any other arrangements that may be necessary for the Safety and Comfort of the party.” After Rencher’s party had passed, Assistant Surgeon B.J.D. Irwin also needed an escort of “one non-commissioned officer and eight men to protect him on his journey to Fort Leavenworth.” It was more than Chapman could do since there were “no more kettles on hand.” Company C under Captain Sanches of the Mounted Third Regiment, newly recruited, had only mess pans and one iron pot and the next company to arrive, Company D, had just mustered in from Mora at the Fort and were given only mess pans and axes. On the 20th Doctor Irwin and a detail of six mounted Volunteers left for Fort Wise. But the Doctor, noted that “they are very destitute of the proper outfit,” and sent them back to Fort Union. Without pay, and without the necessities of life in the field, with constant derision by the ‘Gringos,’ the volunteers everywhere were beginning to fairly seethe with rage. A very indignant Captain Severiana Martínez, Company D, Third Volunteer Regiment, wrote a scathing letter to his superior Colonel José Gallegos. He had been sent on patrol and he found his destitute men who had been detailed for the escort, straggling back towards Fort Union.

"I meet Six men of my Company, who by order of old Chapman were dispached [sic] to the U.S. [with] a certain Doctor, a man of consideration, to whom my men were delivered by the accoused [sic - probably meant ‘accursed’ rather than ‘accused’] old man, seeing that they were not in any manner recommended by him [referring to Chapman’s apparent dislike for the volunteers], to suply [sic] them with what was necessary to live upon nor on account of their pay, I determined to return them back to my Company. These miserable and unfortunate men with difficulty arrived here with their horses with their provisions behind them, and all this the fault of the old commander, I have referred [sic] to. I suppose he does so believing that we greasers, as they treat us, do not know to distinguish the bad faith with which they [the Anglo officers] conduct themselves in their duty. My Colonel, I pray you, will have the kindness to cause your interpreter to explain to the commander Chapman what I say in this letter. I have met with no accident and will proceed on my march, God willing, with all the regularity posible [sic] to defend and protect the property of the federal government which has been confided under my orders…"
Official Records, Martínez to Gallegos 9/20/61.

Because most of the correspondences in the Official Records were written by ‘Anglo’ Officers it is difficult to appreciate what the Volunteers were going through at this time, however, this letter gives us a good idea. They were met with revulsion and condescension wherever they went. Almost everyone referred to the Hispanics as ‘Greasers’ and ‘Coyotes,’ even respectable people back in the States. The Anglo volunteers fared better but they were still slighted by association with the ‘inferior’ people. Even men such as St. Vrain and Kit Carson were not always taken very seriously in their recommendations, as some people sometimes referred to them as having ‘too much Injun in them,’ or, as having ‘gone native.’ On the 20th of September Kit Carson took over in St. Vrain’s stead as commander of the First Regiment. This was formalized by Governor Connelly on October 4th when he promoted Kit to Colonel and J. Francisco Chaves to Lt. Colonel. As a result of the vacancies, Captain Arthur Morrison was promoted to Major and José Gutierrez became the Captain of Company B in his place.

Then the thing Canby feared the most occurred – a mutiny. From Camp Connelly at Polvadera Captain Samuel Archer of the 5th US Infantry sent a report of “a serious occurrence” to Nicodemus at Canby’s HQ at Belen. Thirty men of two companies of the 2nd Volunteer Regiment that were returning to their base at Socorro had mutinied. Major Manuel D. Pino, also of the 2nd Regiment had ordered them to return to Fort Craig, an order which they had refused, “stating they had not been paid or clad as they had been promised.” Instead the thirty men had absconded towards the mountains. Colonel Miguel E. Pino, commanding the 2nd Regiment, was on his way to Socorro.

On the same day, there was another near mutiny staged at Fort Union in one of the militia companies. But it was quickly subdued by Col. Paul. He thought the officers were to blame though he could not get proof, so he discharged them, reduced the NCOs, and put the enlisted men on hard labor until evening. Then he distributed “all the enlisted men among the other companies of Militia at the post.” The unit is not identified in the correspondence but this could have been Company C of the 1st Militia Division, since that company appears to have been disbanded with the men going to other companies. The militia men had never been promised to be “paid or clad” at all, but perhaps their feelings were similar to the other mutineers. Again, it was a matter of trust.

For some reason both transfers of Lt. Col. Benjamin Roberts and Lt. Col. Gabriel Paul from the Regulars to the Volunteers were still not official in Canby’s mind. Perhaps he needed confirmation from Headquarters in Saint Louis. But most likely it was because he was desperately short of Regular officers. He turned them down, also citing, “Besides this, the prejudice of the Mexican population towards the Americans is so great that if the field officers are taken altogether from the latter class it is to be apprehended that it will delay, if it does not defeat, the organization of these regiments. This is not, perhaps, a good military reason, but it is a necessity, from the character of the people we have to deal with.” Canby added, “I have also instructed two or three of the most efficient volunteer officers now in the service that, if they would induce the men of their regiments to enter the service for three years, I would recommend them for commissions as field officers. Colonel Gallegos and Lieutenant-Colonel Valdez are among them, and until I can learn what these men are going to do, I could give no definite answer to your question, even if there were no other obstacles to a favorable answer.”
Official Records, Canby to Paul 1/15-16/62.

It appears that to gain some loyalty from the natives, Canby was offering commissions as Regular Army officers to Col. Gallegos and Lt. Col. Valdez of the 3rd Regiment if they would convince their men to extend their enlistments. Since Gallegos and Valdez were already field officers of Volunteers, this must be what he means. If this is true, it is unprecedented. The US Army had never considered American ‘Mexicans’ as anything but support personnel, guides, and auxiliaries before this time. There had never been an official policy against Hispanics joining the Regular Army but it was effectively discouraged on a local level. Even Col. Loring had offered commissions to the Hispanos before Canby did. As it would turn out, both Paul and Roberts would retain their new commissions, Paul as Colonel of the Fourth Volunteer Regiment and Roberts as Colonel of the Fifth. But this brings up another mystery. Why would Canby start a fifth volunteer regiment when the fourth had not filled up yet? It only had six companies and Roberts’ two companies of the Fifth should have been included in the Fourth. There is one possible reason to start a new regiment – so that Canby could make his friend Roberts a full Colonel – but this cannot be known for sure. One of the most striking things about the Union forces in New Mexico was the hodge-podge collection of mounted and foot volunteers, militia, and myriad independent companies. It must have been an organizational and logistical nightmare to control. To be sure, the Regulars were used to having their companies dispersed, and perhaps they continued it by habit, but during the present crisis it must have been a difficulty.

Kendall, the expedition’s historian, defended the idea of an invasion by stating that, “the attempt to conquer a province, numbering some one hundred and fifty thousand inhabitants within its borders, was a shade too Quixotical to find favour in the eyes of the three hundred and twenty pioneers”.
Twitchell, Leading Facts II, 70, footnote 50.
In hindsight it surely was. New Mexico did not have that many people at that time [1841], probably about 40,000-45,000, but considering that the populace mainly lived in small, far-flung, pastoral villages consisting mostly of peons; and the standing army in the whole area was a company of less than one hundred troops who were spread out in garrisons or employed guarding the Santa Fe Trail, was the idea really so quixotic? Perhaps not. It was well known that the Mexican Presidio troops were only armed with lances, swords, and second-rate firearms. Three hundred well-armed Texans with good rifles could easily defeat this contingent, and the Texans knew it. But what about the many militia groups? Of these, The Texans had heard rumors of great dissatisfaction in the ranks, and it was possible that a large militant faction, such as the previous 3,000-plus rebels of the Rio Arriba Rebellion might step in and put things altogether in the Texan balance. With that in mind, it was just possible and the Texans knew it.
Twitchell, Leading Facts II, 70, footnote 50.

*Benedict, p.50
Old Santa Fe Vol.1 by Ralph Emerson Twitchell (see “Kirby Benedict” article)

Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War, Officers of Hispanic Descent in the Union Army by Robert Girard Carroon

New Mexico had the most officers with Hispanic names serving in the nineteen units which were enlisted in the Federal service. New Mexico at this time also included Arizona Territory. So far 157 officers have been identified, including Lt. Colonel Diego Archuleta commanding the First New Mexico Volunteer Infantry, Colonel Miguel E. Pino who commanded the 2nd New Mexico Volunteer Infantry, Colonel Jose G. Gallegos commander of the Third New Mexico Volunteer Infantry, and Lt. Colonel Francisco Perea, who commanded Perea's Militia Battalion. Most of these units fought in the Battle of Valverde on 21 February 1862 against the forces of the Confederate States Army commanded by Brigadier General Henry H. Sibley. These units also participated in such battles as Fort Craig, on 23 August and 26 September 1861 under Brigadier General Edward R. S. Canby and Glorietta Pass, and later served under Brevet Brigadier General Christopher S. "Kit" Carson. The Battle of Aro Pass, fought on 5 July 1865, was among the last engagements of the war.

San Marcos Pueblo Grant by Malcolm Ebright from the NM Office of the State Historian

No action was taken on Julian’s supplemental opinion during the 1880s, but behind the scenes new claimants were acquiring deeds from the descendants of Antonio Urban Montaño. They included Lehman and Willi Spiegelberg two of ten children born to Jacob Spiegelberg, who came to the U.S. from Prussia and Westphalia, Germany. Lehman came to New Mexico in 1857, thirteen years after his brother Solomon Jacob Spiegelberg had arrived, to learn the merchandising trade from Eugene Leitensdorfer. Solomon Jacob not only learned about mercantile transactions in New Mexico, but also gained a good command of both Spanish and English. When Colonel Doniphan’s regiment arrived in Santa Fe in the wake of General Stephen Watts Kearney’s conquest of New Mexico, Solomon Spiegelberg joined him to become his sutler “to supply his troops while they were on the march or when they were camping.” Upon the regiment’s return to Santa Fe, Solomon Jacob Spiegelberg was appointed sutler to Fort Marcy and at the same time established his mercantile business in Santa Fe. The success of the Spiegelberg firm led Solomon Jacob to send for his younger brothers to join him. Levi came in 1848, Elias in 1850, Emanuel in 1853, Lehman in 1857, and Willi in 1861. Solomon Jacob left New Mexico in 1854 because of his health. After establishing their mercantile business in Santa Fe the Spiegelberg brothers engaged in numerous other business enterprises.

The Spiegelberg family was closely associated with the Ilfeld and Staab families through marriage and both the Spiegelberg and Staab families vied for Indian supply contracts. Henry Tobias notes in his History of the Jews in New Mexico, that, “the Spiegelbergs were among the first to move into the reestablished Indian trade. When the Navajos moved to their reservation in August 1868, the first trading license issued at Fort Defiance went to Lehman Speigelberg. He named his brother Willi and one Henry O’Neill as his clerks, and they had the right, not later granted to others, to trade at the agency or anywhere on the reservation. Willi Spiegelberg, in turn, was the first trader at Fort Wingate in July 1868.” Willi Spiegelberg later became sutler to the Navajo Indian Agency and in 1882 was elected Santa Fe County Commissioner.

The success of the Speigelberg’s in obtaining Indian Agency contracts may have been due in part to their close ties to the military and civil leaders of New Mexico. Willi Speigelberg was a close friend of Governor Lew Wallace, and “among guests of the Spiegelbergs in Santa Fe were president and Mrs. Hayes, Generals Grant, Pope, Logan, Miles, Sheridan, and Sherman.” According to Henry Tobias, “the Spiegelbergs has a history of an interest in mining which dated at least to the [eighteen] sixties. Lehman Spiegelberg served on the board of directors of the Willison Silver Mining Co. in 1872.” In 1861 the Spiegelbergs joined a group of investors that incorporated the Montezuma copper Mining Company of Santa Fe. They were probably familiar with William F. M. Arny’s report concerning the presence of copper in the area.[35] Lehman Spiegelberg’s interest in copper mining may have been the impetus that impelled him to acquire the San Marcos Pueblo grant.

*CollinsJL p.484
Turmoil in New Mexico, 1846-1868 by William Aloysius Keleher

When Your Blood Runs Reb, White and Blue...

Grayson, John B. (1806-1861)

When the Texans Came: Missing Records from the Civil War in the Southwest by John Philip Wilson

p.210 (missing p.209)
...excellent stopping place for the Texans to recuperate. In fact, it would be a serious annoyance to us, and with that view I wrote to Col. Paul recommending that a party be placed there to destroy the Ranch in case of the enemy advancing in that direction. I have not yet received a reply from Col. Paul.

Very resp. Yr. Obd. Svt.
J.L. Donaldson
Qrmaster Comg. District Santa Fe

Col. E.R.S. Canby
Comg. Dept. N. Mexo

P.S. Since writing the above, Capt. Chapin informs me that Giddings Ranch is occupied by Capt. [Pablo?] Martines with twenty six men, pursuant to instructions recd from me. I presume Maj. Paul has referred my letter to Col. [Jose] Gallegos in command of Hatch's Ranch.

[January 19, 1862]

Dear Major:
Yours of the 18th and the enclosed papers have been received. Capt. Shaw's report, as all his have been, is clear and satisfactory. The acting executive of Colorado Territory is as non-committal as Governor Gilpin was.

The instructions to Col. Gallegos were made in detail so as to prevent any misconceptions. I have endorsed the substance on Mr. Gidding's letter, which I returned. In addition to this, the officer was instructed if he took or destroyed any property, to do it in the presence of Mr. Giddings or his agent.

The officer sent by Col. Pino to capture the mutineers appears to have mismanaged his business, and they are still at large. Two companies from Polvadera are on their trail. I have sent a cavalry unit company from this place to intercept them if ther attempt to go up the Puerco, & another from Los Lunas to the neighborhood of Cubero if they take that direction. If they keep together, they will be caught.

Lists have been sent to the Commanders of Districts with instructions to secure them. No news from below.

Very Truly,
Yours &
Maj. Donaldson
Cmg. & - Ed. R.S. Canby
Santa Fe N.M.

Crédit Mobilier of America scandal NM Railway Company, 1860?
    º Ames, Oakes (1804-1873)
    º Colfax, Schuyler (1823-1885)
    º Duff Green (1791-1875)
    º Wilson, Henry (1812-1875)
José Francisco Chaves

Additional Resources:

Adios Nuevo Mexico: The Santa Fe Journal of John Watts in 1859 Ed. David Remley (NM Wool Mfg Co, Oliver P. Hovey)

Bazan Family of New Mexico
Merchant-Trader Jose Guadalupe Gallegos (1828-)

The Book of Marriages San Miguel Del Bado by the New Mexico Genealogical Society
Union Regimental Index New Mexico

Civil War Soldiers and Sailor System

Daily New Mexican

El Gringo New Mexico and Her People by William Watts Hart Davis, 1857

In order to rid the country of all Native-born Spaniards, the Mexican Congress, in the year 1828, passed what is known as the Expulsion Law, which expelled all of this class of persons from the republic. There were at times several Franciscan friars residing in the territory, who were subject to this decree, but two of them, Alvino and Castro, were excepted and permitted to remain, in consequence of their great age, and by paying each the sum of five hundred dollars.

Soon after war was declared against Mexico in May, 1846, the government of the United States determined to organize as expedition for the conquest of the provice of New Mexico. The troops to be called the "Army of the West"... The whole force consisted of sixteen hundred and fifty eight men, and sixteen pieces of cannon, being mostly composed of mounted volunteers.

The troops took up the line of march for Santa Fe on the sixteenth of June. Their course... a distance of nearly a thousand miles. The little army was about fifty days making the march, and, on the eighteenth of August, they entered and took possession of Santa Fe without opposition. ...Kearny... issued a proclamation to the people, assuring them that they would be protected in their persons, property and religion, and that henceforth they would be considered American citizens.

Many of the inhabitants took the oath of allegience, swearing to support the Constitution of the United States. Thus a complete change was made in the institutions of the country, and the people passed from the old to a new order of things without the shedding of a drop of blood.

New Mexico was made a portion of the American Union by the treaty of Guadalupe de Hidalgo, and a territorial government was erected over it by the Act of Congress, approved September 9th, 1850. The first Legislative Assembly was convened in Santa Fe in June of the next year, when the different departments of the new government were organized and put into operaton. This act of Congress, known as the Organic Law, is the fundamental law of the Territory, and stands in the place of a Constitution in the respective states of the Union.

The second branch of the territorial government provided for in the Organic Law—the law-making power— is vested in the governor and the Legislative Assembly, the latter consisting of the Council and House of Representatives. The Council consists of thirteen members, and the House of Representatives of twenty-six; the former being elected for two years, and the latter annually. The qualification of voters, as prescribed in the Organic Law for the first election, embraces all free white male inhabitants above the age of twenty-one years who were residents of the Territory at the time of the passage of the act, but the Legislature subsequently fixed the time of residence at one year.

The alcaldes are elected annually in the respective counties, each precinct being entitled to one. The civil jurisdiction is substantially the same as that which usually belongs to justices of the peace, but the criminal jurisdiction is more extensive. They have cognizance of all larcenies, except the stealing of horses, asses, hogs, and goats, where the goods stolen do not exceed one hundred dollars in value; of the offense of buying, receiving, or aiding in the concealment of stolen goods within the same amount; and also of all assaults, assaults and batteries, and breaches of the peace. These several offenses are tried before a jury in the alcalde's court, and, upon conviction, he has the power to punish by fine and imprisonment; but the accused has the right to appeal to the District Court. A sheriff is elected in each county for two years, who is also ex officio collector of taxes. There are likewise an auditor of public accounts, treasurer, and attorney general for the Territory, all of whom are appointed for the term of two years by the governor, by and with the advice of the Legislative Council

The administration of justice in New Mexico, before the country fell into the hands of the Americans, was rude and uncertain, and the people had very little security for their persons and property. The system of government they were made subject to was, in all its bearings, a miserable tyranny; and in the various changes that took place in the central government no relief was given to this and other provinces. On the establishment of the republic, New Mexico was erected into a separate province, and was allowed a political organization that made some little pretension to a regular government, but the pretension was about all. The chief executive officer was called gefe politico—political chief; and a kind of Legislature was allowed—a poor affair at best—known as the Diputacion Provincial. When the central system was adopted, the names of the respective branches of the government were changed, but their power remained about the same as before. A governor was appointed by the President of Mexico for the term of eight years, and the legislative power was vested in a kind of executive council called the Junta Departamental. The powers of this body were very limited, and, in fact, they were no more than the creatures of the governor, who was the lord and master of the whole department. He imitated the early kings of England, and whenever he saw the members were disposed to become troublesome, he would "prorogue" the Junta and send them to their homes, the country, for the time being, having no further need of their services. In this easy manner he got rid of those who might have become unwelcome advisers.

p.106 ...fueros. According to the Spanish ecclesiastical law, no member of priesthood, of the rank of curate and upward, could be made to appear before a civil tribunal, but they were alone to be judged by their peers—the clergy. The military were also exempt from trial before a civil tribunal, which extended to both officers and men. These exemptions maintained privileged classes in the community, which proved a dead weight against any advance toward freedom.

In a case of debt, the debtor was not sent to jail if the creditor was willing to accept his services to work out the amount of the judgment; by which means he was saved from prison, but for the time being was plunged into a state of servitude. He worked for a fixed sum, some five or six dollars per month, and was supplied with the necessary goods from his employer's store. His wages were not sufficient to support himself and family, and enable him to discharge his former indebtedness, and therefore the customs and laws of the country reduced him to a state of peonage, and the unfortunate debtor found himself a slave for life. This same system is continued in the modern servitude known as peonism, of which I will take occasion to say more in a subsequent chapter.

...The main branch of agriculture which the Territory at present supports— and the same must be the case in future—is grazing. In the northern and middle section the climate is too cold for the growth of any crops that would yield a profitable return to slave labor. A greater barrier than climate is the cheapness of peon labor, which is less expensive to the proprietor... A peon can perform as much work, and can be hired for about what it will cost... with the further advantage of the master having no capital invested in him, which he must lose at the death of the slave. The present labor of the country is so much cheaper than any that could be introduced, that a person would hardly be justifiable in risking his capital in slaves with so little prospect of profitable return. ...if it should be introduced, my opinion is that the institution would never flourish with any degree of vigor, and that in a few years it would gradually die out, as in the northern states of the Union.

Lieutenant Colonel Benjamin Beall, the then military commandant in the absence of Colonel Washington, issued a proclamation for the election of delegates to a convention to assemble in Santa Fe in September, 1849, for the purpose of adopting a plan for a territorial government, and to elect a delegate to Congress to urge its adoption. A satisfactory plan was agreed upon, and Hugh N. Smith, Esq., was elected as delegate, who went to Washington, and remained nearly the whole session, but was refused his seat by a majority of four votes.

In the mean time the country became greatly agitated as to the terms upon which California and New Mexico should be admitted into the Union, the slavery question having been thrown in as a bone of contention. Texas also began to assert her claim anew to all that part of New Mexico east of the Bio del Norte; and to carry out this purpose, that state sent Spruce M. Baird, Esq., under the appointment of judge, into the Territory, to erect all that portion of the country into the county of Santa Fe, and to extend the jurisdiction of the laws of Texas over it. The people of New Mexico being averse to Texas rule, they disregarded this assumed jurisdiction, and refused obedience thereto; and the mission of Mr. Baird being barren of consequences, he returned again to Texas. Early in the spring of 1850, Texas sent a commissioner, Robert S. Neighbors, Esq., into New Mexico, with instructions to divide the country east of the Rio del Norte into several counties of that state, and to hold elections in them for county officers. Upon the mission of Mr. Neighbors being known, it was loudly denounced in public meetings throughout the Territory, and a very strong opposition was raised against him and the objects he had in view. He issued a proclamation fixing time and places for an election, but nobody went to the polls, and the matter fell to the ground.

In the spring of 1849, James S. Calhoun, Esq., went to New Mexico, under an appointment as Indian agent, but upon his arrival he declared that he had secret instructions from the government at Washington to induce the people to form a state government.

For a time the plan of a state government received but little support, but in the course of the summer and fall an excitement was raised upon the subject, and both parties, state and territorial, published addresses to the peopie; the former being headed by Messrs. Calhoun, Alvarez, and Pillans, and the latter by St.Vrain, Houghton, Beaubien, and others. The matter continued to be discussed without much effect in favor of the state organization until the spring of 1850, when Colonel George A. M'Call arrived in Santa Fe. from the States, upon a like mission as Calhoun. He informed the people that no territorial government would be granted by Congress, and that President Taylor was determined that New Mexico should be erected into a state government, in order to settle the question of slavery, and also that of boundary with Texas

In view of the present condition of political affairs—Congress neglecting to organize a territorial government on the one hand, and Texas threatening to dismember the country on the other, with the presence of military rule daily becoming obnoxious to the people—the territorial party at last yielded their preference, and joined in the advocacy of a state government. Accordingly, resolutions to that effect were adopted at a meeting held in the city of Santa Fe on the 20th of April, 1850, and also requesting Colonel John Monroe, the civil and military governor, to issue a proclamation calling upon the people to elect delegates to a convention to be convened on the 15th of May following at that place. The delegates, elected in pursuance of the proclamation, assembled in convention on the day therein mentioned, and remained in session for ten days, during which time they adopted, with great unanimity, a Constitution, which had been drafted by Joab Houghton and M. F. Tuley, Esquires. It assimilated, in its general features, to the Constitutions of the new states of the- Union; and, among other things, contained a clause prohibiting slavery, in order to meet the views of the Mexican population. The Constitution was adopted on the 20th of June with little, if any opposition, and, at the same time, state officers were elected. The Legislature assembled on the 1st of July of the same year at Santa Fe, when they elected two senators in Congress, Francis A. Cunningham and Richard H. Weightman. Bottger-Gallegos
Bottger-Gallegos Family
NM History
Genealogy El Valle, New Mexico
Nuestra Historia - We settled San Miguel Del Bado (originally printed in the Las Vegas Optic)

United States, Civil War Soldiers Records for José Guadalupe Gallegos
State (or Origin): New Mexico Territory
Military Unit: 3rd Regiment, NM Mounted Infantry (6 month)
Side: Union
Rank In/Out: Colonel
NARA Publication: M242
NARA Roll Number: 2
Film Number: 821884
New Mexico, Civil War Service Records of Union Soldiers, 1861-1865 for José Guadalupe Gallegos
Year: 1861
NARA Publication Title: Compiled Service Records of Volunteer Union Soldiers
Who Served in Organizations from the Territory of New Mexico
NARA Publication Number: M427
NARA Roll Number:45


Acts of the Legislature of West Virginia
The Standing Stone Oil Company of West Virginia The undersigned agree to become a corporation... we have subscribed the sum of four hundred thousand dollars to the capital thereof, and have paid on said subscriptions the sum of forty thousand dollars, and desire the privelage of increasing the said capital by sales of additional shares, from time to time, to two million dollars in all. The capital so subscribed is divided into shares of fifty dollars each, which are held by the undersigned, respectively, as follows, that is to say: ...Hamilton G. Fant, of the District of Columbia, eight hundred shares... [Feb 20, 1865]

Congressional edition by United States. Congress
Santa Fe, NM, Sep 29, 1885
I have been shown a letter from George C. Whiting, esq., Acting Secretary of the Department of the Interior, dated May 30, 1855, to Hamilton G. Fant, esq., of Washington city, in regard to the claim of John Gorman for remaining half amount due him for services as assistant United States marshall for taking census in the Territory of New Mexico. In the latter the Secretary is laboring under a misapprehension of the facts. The $603 62 were, it is true, included in the note given by me to Gorman, but after the suit was withdrawn, by his order, from the amount of the judgement. No part of the balance of that judgement has ever been satisfied by me, nor have I ever been able to pay John Gorman any part of the amount due him. The other obligation I gave him for $603 62, which I understand has been forwarded to Hamilton G. Fant, esq., was given and intended as evidence of my indebtedness to Gorman, and that I had not been able to pay him, and was thus conditionally received by Gorman, and not in satisfaction of the claim. I further certify that I have not been able, nor am I now able, to pay any part of this last-named amount.
C.H. Merritt [Fant is mentioned in other places below this statement]

Congressional edition, Volume 938 by United States. Congress
Bank of Commerce,
Georgetown, D.C., December 31, 1857
Certain individuals, to wit: Hugh B. Sweeny, Hamilton G. Fant, John L. Dufief, Richard Pettit, Mrs. Susan Ireland, Charles E. Rittenhouse, Samuel Fowler, William T. Herron, R.M. Boyer, and Timothy O'Neale, who are all residents of this district, and known to ne large real estate owners, of abundant means, and who were entirely disconnected with the banks whose charters had thus expired, determined, in the absence of any banking law for this District, and the solicitation of a large number of merchants, to appropriate a considerable part of their capital to the business of banking.

Pacific states reports: extra annotated, Book 30
Thomas M. Pattie v. Joseph C. Wilson and others
Joseph C. Wilson executed his promissory note for the sum of $240, payable to Hamilton G. Fant, due one year after date, with 40 per cent. per annum as interest thereon from date...

Reports of cases decided in the Court of Appeals of the State of New York Vol.50
The Ocean National Bank of the City of New York,
Apellant, v. Hamilton G. Fant, Respondent
Nov-Dec 1872
New York, October 15, 1869. "On demand I promise to pay to Hamilton G. Fant or order $3,352.61 for value received, with interest at the rate of seven per cent per annum, having deposited with him as collateral security, with authority to sell the same at the brokers' board, or at public or private sale, or otherwise at his option, on the non-performance of this promise and without notice, one land grant bond of the Union Pacific Railroad Company, eastern division, of the par value of $1,000, and four construction bonds, series B. of the said Union Pacific Railroad Company, convertible into the land grant bonds of the same description as the one first named, and all of the par value of $1,000 each, said bonds being deposited with Ocean National Bank.

Reports of cases in the Supreme Court of Appeals of Virginia
Brown v. Speyers
Jan 20, 1871
embodied the evidence given on the trial, and also the affidavits of the defendent and of Hamilton G. Fant...

Virginia reports: Jefferson--33 Grattan, 1730-1880
by Thomas Johnson Michie, Thomas Jefferson, Peachy Ridgway Grattan
Hamilton G. Fant of Sweeny, Rittenhouse, Fant & Co.
Segar & al. v. Parrish & als.
Sandoval et al. Morton v. United States May 24, 1897

Google Books
Bancroft, Hubert Howe
    º History of Arizona and New Mexico, 1530-1888
El Cerrito, New Mexico: 8 generations in a Spanish village by Richard Lee Nostrand Pg4 San Miguel del Vado Grant
Legal Executions in the Western Territories, 1847-1911 by R. Michael Wilson (Jose Silvestre Gallegos - murder of Sheriff)
Levine, Frances
    º Our prayers are in this place: Pecos Pueblo identity over the centuries
Mora, Anthony P.
    º Border Dilemmas: Racial and National Uncertainties in New Mexico, 1848–1912 (Governor Connely proclamation, p.91)
New Mexico. Governor
    º Report of the Governor of New Mexico to the Secretary of the Interior , 1903 (p.383 San Miguel del Bado claimed 315,000 acre all rejected except irrigated farm lands)
New Mexico. Secretary of State New Mexico Blue Book, 1882
Outlaws & Desperados by Ann Lacy, Anne Valley-Fox (murder Silvestre Gallegos Santa Fe coroner/chief of police)
Platt, Lyman De
    º Census records for Latin America and the Hispanic United States
The Pacific reporter, Volume 120 Pg707 Bond et al. v. Unknown Heirs of Barela et al.
Report of the commissioner of the General Land Office by US General Land Office Pg201 San Miguel del Bado
Stanley, Francis
    º Fort Union, New Mexico (Col J. Gallegos, 3rd NM Vols.)
United States. Congress
    º Congressional edition, Vol2541 by US Congress (p283 “San Miguel del Bado”)
Westphall, Victor
Thomas Benton Catron and His Era (Murder of Sheriff Silvestre Gallegos)

Google Search
Daily New Mexican
Hamilton G. Fant New Mexico
“Hatch's Ranch” “Civil War”
Jose Guadalupe Gallegos New Mexico
“New Mexican Railway Company”
Santa Fe Weekly Gazette
Santa Fe Gazette 1862

Guns Along the Rio Grande Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma
U.S. Army Center Of Military History

The Mexican War (1846-1848) was the U.S. Army's first experience waging extended conflict in foreign land. ...At the conclusion of this conflict, the U.S. had added some one million square miles of territory, including what today are the states of Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, and California, as well as portions of Colorado, Wyoming, Utah, and Nevada. This newly acquired land also became a battleground between advocates for the expansion of slavery and those who fought to prevent its spread... ripped the fabric of the union of states and eventually contributed to the start of the American Civil War, just thirteen years later. In addition, the Mexican War was a proving ground for a generation of U.S. Army leaders who as junior officers in Mexico learned the trade of war and later applied those lessons to the Civil War. ...the U.S. Army won a series of decisive conventional battles, all of which highlighted the value of U.S. Military Academy graduates who time and again paved the way for American victories.

A period of distrust and misunderstanding preceded the opening of hostilities between the United States and Mexico. After gaining its independence from Spain in 1821, Mexico controlled most of the land north of the Rio Grande that encompasses the present-day states of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California. Between the 1820s and 1840s, English-speaking settlers filtered into this area, which was only marginally controlled by the overextended government in Mexico City. Thousands of Americans, who changed their citizenship and received large tracts of land from the Mexican government, rebelled in Texas in 1835 for several reasons, including Mexico's abolition of the locally popular Texas provincial government and its inability to protect the settlers against Indian raids. These infringements prompted some of the Mexicans living in the region to side with the rebels. Additional causes of the independence movement include cultural differences springing from the Protestant beliefs of the American immigrants and Mexican demands that all become Catholic. Many settlers, moreover, were from the southern states and wanted to introduce slavery into territory that had been free since 1821, an anathema to most Mexicans. The rebels won their independence in 1836 and formed the Republic of Texas. Mexico, however, refused to honor Texas' independence granted by General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna after the battle of San Jacinto. Consequently, during their years as an independent nation, the Texans did not have formal diplomatic relations with Mexico. Texans insisted that their southern border was the Rio Grande. That claim not only extended the nascent republic's borders some one hundred miles beyond the boundary sought by Mexico, but also added to Texas almost half of the present-day state of New Mexico by virtue of that river's northward turn west of El Paso. Mexico nevertheless continued a Spanish tradition of designating headlands between watercourses as boundaries and claimed that the line ran some hundred miles to the north on heights that separated the Rio Grande and the Nueces River watersheds. The Mexican approach made some sense, as waterways tend to change come over time.

Poor relations between Texas and Mexico intensified in 1844 when Texas applied to become an American state. Mexico declared that it would consider U.S. annexation of the region an act of war. Concerned, President John Tyler directed the U.S. Army to assemble a force called the Army of Observation at Fort Jesup, Louisiana, near the Texas border. After the United States officially annexed Texas on 4 July 1845, the newly elected President James K. Polk ordered the troops to advance into Texas. Polk's decision served as the catalyst for the opening battles of the Mexican War at Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma in the disputed borderlands.

North of the Rio Grande, Mexico's holdings extended from the western borders of the states of Louisiana and Arkansas in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west. They included more than one million square miles of land in the present-day states of Colorado, Wyoming, Utah, Nevada, New Mexico, Arizona, and California.

The United States had interests beyond the Texas issue in Mexico's northern territory. By 1840, the population of the United States had reached approximately thirteen million and was growing rapidly. Looking westward to expand, the nation justified its demand for land with the concept of Manifest Destiny, the notion that God willed the United States to control the entire North American land mass. As expounded by newspaper editor John L. O'Sullivan, the idea became a key part of American ideology in the mid-1840s. Economics also played a central role in the concept. American explorers in California such as 2d Lt. John C. Fremont had reported deepwater ports along the area's coast. These would be valuable when the United States sought to open trade between America's growing industry and lucrative markets in Asia. In an attempt to settle the Texas border question and secure California, the United States offered to purchase both regions from Mexico several times between 1842 and 1845. Mexico refused all overtures.

The standard American infantry weapon was the 1835 model smoothbore flintlock musket. Inaccurate at best, the musket had an approximate target-hit ratio of 10 percent at one hundred yards. Percussion cap muskets and rifled weapons accurate to distances of five hundred yards were available, but both saw only limited service in the war and did not become standard issue until after the conflict. ...Mexican soldiers were poorly armed with out-of-date, inaccurate, and often unserviceable muzzleloading flintlock muskets.

Three departments--Quartermaster, Ordnance, and Subsistence-provided logistical support for the U.S. Army. The Quartermaster Department, the most important of the three, supplied troops with all equipment other than weapons: uniforms, horses, saddles, tents, and food. It also arranged transportation, oversaw construction projects, and, during the Mexican War, created and ran a series of advanced supply depots close to field operating forces that ensured a steady flow of provisions and equipment to the troops. Although its long supply lines sometimes became targets for Mexican irregulars and bandits, the Quartermaster Department provided the U.S. Army with one of the most advanced logistical support operations in the world. The Ordnance Department supplied firearms and ammunition, while the Subsistence Department secured bulk items, such as barrels of flour, salt pork, and cured beef; both departments operated in the rear along the Army's lines of communication.

Hawikuh and the Seven Cities of Cibola by F. Ross Holland Jr. (p.29 Juan Gallego - Coronado messenger)@ National Park Service

Legacy of honor:the life of Rafael Chacón, a nineteenth-century New Mexican
“Jose G. Gallegos's Third Regiment, led by his second-in-command, Lt. Col. Jose M. Valdez, both New Mexico Volunteer units...”

New Mexico Genealogical Society
San Miguel County Locating Catholic Church Records in NM see San Antonio de Padua, Pecos for Las Colonias
San Miguel del Bado Church ($) Baptisms and Marriages research for sale

New Mexico Office of the State Historian
Lorenzo Marquez Land Grant Petition 1794 by Mark Schiller
San Miguel del Vado Grant by Mark Schiller
    º San Miguel del Vado Land Grant location of José Guadalupe & Josefa Gutierres' Marriage with video of the Church
The Villanueva State Park History of Title and History of the San Miguel del Bado Land Grant

New Mexico's Digital Collections, Advanced Search, from U New Mexico, Libraries
Essay concerning the Civil War in New Mexico
New Mexican Santa Fe, NM 1863-1868
Santa Fe Weekly Gazette

from NM Tourism Dept Guide to Billy the Kid Territory

After his capture at Stinking Springs in 1880, the shackled Kid, guard­ed by Garrett and his posse, enjoyed a two-hour Christmas Day turkey dinner at Polish ex-priest Alexander Grzelachowski's Home & Store (28). This Territorial-style sandstone and adobe structure, built in 1874, is in Puerto de Luna, 10 miles south of Santa Rosa (private property).

Settled shortly after 1822, the Pecos River settlement of Anton Chico (29) attracted merchants, ranchers and outlaws. Here the Kid and the Regulators scared off San Miguel County Sheriff Desiderio Romero and his posse in Manuel Sanchez's sa­loon in August, 1878, and Garrett married Apolinaria Gutierrez (the older sister of the one of the Kid's queridas) in January, 1880, in St. Joséph's Church, built in 1857, 40 miles northwest of Santa Rosa.

In the Victorian-era city Las Vegas (30), the site of the county jail where the Kid spent the night after his capture at Stinking Springs, is at 200 Valencia Street, a block northwest of Old Town Plaza. The site of the old depot, where Garrett and the manacled Kid boarded the next-afternoon train to Santa Fe, is just east of the railroad tracks beyond Railroad Ave., between Jackson and Tilden Streets.

Report of the secretary of the Territory, 1903-1904, and Legislative manual, 1905

Corporations Created by Special Act of the Legislature [1850-1867]
Name Date of creation Term of years Place of business Capital stock
Albuquerque Academy Jan. 24, 1857 Not Stated Albuquerque *
Albuquerque Bridge Company Jan. 24, 1865   "   " $50,000
Atlantic and Pacific Railroad Company Jan. 31, 1856 Perpetual Santa Fe 10,000,000
Abiquiu Pagosa and Baker City Road Company Dec. 28,1860 20 Not Stated 15,000
Bay State Pinos Altos Mining Company, The Jan. 3, 1865 Not Stated   " 1,000,000
Cemetery Association of the County of Taos Jan. 25, 1865   "   " *
College of Christian Brothers of New Mexico Jan. 5, 1874   "   " *
Company for the repair of a road in the canon of Mora Feb. 3, 1864   "   " 10,000
Curators of the Industrial College of New Mexico Jan. 28, 1863   " Santa Fe *
Fraternity of the Ancient, Free and Accepted Masons of the Territory of New Mexico Feb. 6, 1854   " Not stated *
Fraternity of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows of the Territory New Mexico, The Feb. 6, 1864   " Not stated *
Gold and Copper Mining Company of New Mexico at the Placer of San Francisco, The Jan. 23, 1864   "   " *
Hanover Copper Mining Company of New Mexico Jan. 31, 1867   "   " 500,000
Kansas New Mexico Arizona and California Railroad and Telegraph Company Dec. 30, 1863   "   " 50,000
La Tijera Copper Mining Company New Mexican Jan 31 1867   "   " 100,000
Market Gold Mining Company,The Jan. 18, 1865   "   " 1,000,000
Mesilla Ferry Company Feb. 1, 1866   "   " 500,000
Mesilla Mining Company Feb. 2, 1860   "   " 50,000
Mining Company of the North Jan. 30, 1861   "   " 250,000
Montezuma Copper Mining Company of Santa Fe, New Mexico, The Jan. 26, 1861   "   " 500,000
Nacimiento Copper Mining Company of New Mexico, The Jan, 31. 1867   "   " 200,000
New Mexican Mining Company Feb 3 1854   "   " 500,000
New Mexican Railway Company, The Feb. 2, 1860   "   " 500,000
New Mexican Wool Manufacturing Company Jan. 28, 1863   "   " 750,000
New Mexico Mining Company, The Feb. 1, 1858   "   " 500000
New Mexico Wool Manufacturing Company Jan. 30, 1861   "   " 750,000
Pinos Altos Mining Company Jan. 31, 1866   "   " 200,000
Pious Fraternity of the County of Taos Jan. 30, 1861   "   " *
Rio Arriba Bridge Company Jan. 22, 1861   "   " 25,000
Rio del Norte Bridge Company of Taos County Jan. 22, 1861   "   " 20,000
Rio Grand Company Jan. 31, 1860   "   " 100,000
Santa Fe Artesian Well Company Feb. 4, 1854 20   " 10,000
Santa Fe Fire Company Jan. 26, 1861 Not stated Santa Fe *
San Miguel Leather Manufacturing Company Jan. 31, 1861   "   " 100,000
San Miguel Wool Manufacturing Company Jan 31 1861   "   " 100,000
Sisters of Loretto Jan. 5, 1874   "   " *
Taos and Mora Mountain Road Company Jan. 30, 1865   "   " 3,000
Jan 30 1865 Ji000 u Trading Company Feb. 30, 1864   "   " *
Union Mining Company of New Mexico Jan. 25, 1862   "   " 2,500,000

Santa Fe Gazette Newspaper (try to find microfiche of this newspaper) from Surnames in the United States Census of 1790: an Analysis of National Origins of the Population
By American Council of Learned Societies
The term "Spanish Southwest" refers to those parts of the present United States which in 1790 were Provinces of the Spanish Empire - the States of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, California, Utah, Nevada, and part of Colorado. The great storehouse for information regarding conditions in this area is the series by B.H. Bancroft: History of the Pacific States of North America. Whatever statistics of population are extant are collected in these volumes and... estimates can be derived from those which are chronologically the nearest.

New Mexico Archives translated by Donald S. Dreesen
New Mexico Territorial 1850, Vol 1 by David H. Salazar, Vol 2-4 by Luis Gilberto Padilla y Baca

Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies in the War of the Rebellion, Series I, Volumes 4, 9 and 26
Fort Union
88. Records of Brigadier General Manuel Herrera, Apache Campaign, 1851-1852, Microfilm, New Mexico Territorial Archives, roll 87, NMSRCA.

San Miguel del Bado, Nov 1829-Nov 1878
San Miguel del Bado Church Vol I, Jan 1, 1829-May 12, 1844
San Miguel del Bado Census 1841

Santa Fe Weekly Gazette 1850's

Santa Fe Daily New Mexican, Sept 24, 1896; Apr 2, 1897
Albuquerque (NM) Weekly Citizen, Apr 3, 1897

Francisco Chavez was sheriff of Santa Fe County in 1890 when he attended a baile where Jose Silvestre Gallegos was a guest. Francisco y Borrego Gonzalez suddenly appeared and without provocation shot and killed Gallegos. Gonzales was acquitted but swore that he would kill the sheriff. Gonzales returned to Santa Fe in mid-May 1892 and on May 29 forty two year old ex-sheriff Chavez was ambushed and murdered while returning home. 1 fugitive was later killed while trying to escape and 4 others, including Gonzales were hanged for the murder.
John Inclan genealogical research
The Descendents of General Pedro Gomez Duran y Chavez And Dona Isabel de Baca
commanding general Pedro Gomez Duran-y-Chavez(DyC) 1585-/Isabel de Baca 1586-?->sergeant major Fernando DyC 1617<1669/Maria de Carvajal->alcalde mayor Fernando DyC 1651>1707/Lucia Hurtado-de-Salas ?-1729->Pedro DyC 1680-1735/Gertrudis Sanchez->(Pedro DyC II; Salvador Manuel DyC 1731-; Jose DyC 1733-1772)

The Spanish Archives of NM Vol.1 p.111
(also see Bartolome Fernandez Grant)

Will and partition of his property. 1760. Before Francisco Guerrero, Alcalde.

The will bears the signature of Fray Juan Joseph Toledo, and is dated at Tomé, November, 1760. Bartolome Frnz. (Fernandez); Maria Butierrez (Gutierrez); Antonio Lucero, el Soldado.

In the papers in the Ojo de San Miguel Tract the petition of Don Bartolomé Fernandez recites:

"I, Bartolomé Fernandez de la Pedrera, brevet ensign of this royal garrison of the Villa de Santa Fe, appear before your excellency and state, sir, in consideration of the many and great services that my deceased grandfather, Captain Martin Hurtado, founder of the Villa of Alburquerque, and ensign of the line of this said garrison, pacificator of this province, rendered, and also those rendered by my deceased father, also pacificator and ensign of the line in the mounted company of the royal garrison of El Paso, as well as those rendered by my brother, who served his majesty and in whose service he died, and as well as those rendered by myself, I have registered and apply for a tract of vacant and unsettled land upon the water shed of the Navajo province."

The tract was called the Ojo de San Miguel and was granted to him by Governor Don Pedro Fermin de Mendinueta in September, 1767.

In 1873, Don Lorenzo Baca, ninety-seven years of age, a resident of Taos, says that Bartolome Fernandez de la Pedrera was his great-grandfather on the maternal side; that his grandfather was Juan Antonio Fernandez, his father's name was Jose Baca, and his mother's Maria Rosa de Fernandez, the daughter of Don Juan Antonio Fernandez; that, when a young boy he had herded sheep and cattle upon this tract which was west of the Puerco river, Chaco Mesa. He states that they had to leave on account of the hostilities of the Navajos except when the Indians became quiet, coming to Santa Fe and receiving presents from the king.

• Anton Chico, NM 15 mi SW of Villaneuva State Park, Pecos River, midway between Las Vegas & Santa Rosa
Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway
Atrisco Land Grant
Battle of Glorieta Pass
Canby, Edward (1817-1873) Civil War Commander of the Department of New Mexico
Chiapas Mexico
Connelly, Henry (1800–1866)
Custos (Franciscans)
Department of New Mexico mid-19th century department of the United States Army
Field officer
Genízaro young Indian captives sold into slavery, Chimayoso Revolt
Green, Duff (1791-1875)
Hispanics in the American Civil War
Las Vegas, NM
New Spain
Santa Rosa, NM at times, known as Anton Chico
Ceran St. Vrain (1802-1870)
Tiguex War
United States Court of Private Land Claims with map of San Miguel del Bado Grant
Zacatecas, Zacatecas Mexico

United States v. Sandoval/Opinion of the Court (San Miguel del Bado del Rio de Pecos)

Inventory of the County Archives of San Miguel County New Mexico No. 24
Sponsor the University of New Mexico
New Mexico Historical Records Survey p. 133



The office of sheriff was created in 1846 by the Kearny Code which empowered the Governor to appoint a sheriff in each county to hold office for 2 years. The sheriff was required by this code to supply a bond in the sum of $1,000 to $50,000. He served all processes directed to him by the clerks of the circuit and prefect courts, was the principal law enforcement and peace officer for the county, and acted as ex-officio collector(Comp. L.N.M., 1897, "Sheriffs," sec 1-7, p. 88).

The first Territorial Legislature made the office of sheriff elective (L.N.M., 1851, p. 198). By provision of an act in 1853 it was required that a person must own real estate of a value of $500 in order to qualify as sheriff(Ibid., 1853-54, p. 146). This provision was repealed by the Legislature in 1939(Ibid., 1939, ch. 121, p. 238).

The Territorial Legislature in 1856 authorized the sheriffs of the various counties to appoint deputies who were required to take the oath to discharge their duties as prescribed by law. The sheriff was responsible for their acts(Ibid., 1855-56, ch. 2, p. 12).

When the State Constitution was adopted in 1912 there was no provision in it regulating the office of sheriff except that it was made a salaried office.

...Powers and Duties

The sheriff was made the custodian of the county jail in 1855 and principal among his duties in this capacity were: Keeping of a list, in a book furnished by the county commissioners, of all prisoners detained in the jail; retaining Territorial prisoners until such time as a State penitentiary should be built; keeping United States prisoners and submitting a report to the United States District Court of the number of such prisoners in the jail; in certain cases providing jobs for persons who, although kept in jail, were not under sentence, and failing to find jobs for them, placing them at work cleaning the street or performing some other public task and supplying all necessary articles for the operation and maintenance of the jail(L.N.M., 1865-66, ch. 99, p. 78).

Until 1869 the chief source of revenue for the Territory was from the fees received from the issue of various types of licenses, the collection of which was the responsibility of the sheriff(Ibid., 1869-70, ch. 18 p. 62).

With the introduction of a general property tax in 1869 his duties as collector increased...

In 1893 the office of county collector was created in counties of first class, in which counties the sheriff was relieved of the duties of collecting taxes...

The powers and duties of the sheriff at present are predominantly the same as in the Kearny Code and in early legislative enactment. He is required to execute all processes directed to him by the clerks of the probate and district courts, and it is his duty to attend upon such courts during their sessions. He is required, as a peace officer, to file a complaint or information reciting the offense charged. As custodian of the county jail it is his duty to summon an armed group to suppress any anticipated assault on the jail(L.N.M., 1857, ch. 8, p. 19)...